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VESTNIK 4 (36) 2023
Date publication on the site:
2023-12-23 13:06:49
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Industrial development of Chuvashia at the end of the 20th – beginning of the 21st century: review of archival sources
UDC: 93/94
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Denis V. Kornev ;
In modern conditions, it is important and promising to study the formation and development of scientific and technological progress, including serious modernization in the USSR industry, the decline in the country’s industrial potential in the 1990s, as well as the creation of new breakthrough discoveries in the field of industry, the use of robotics, artificial intelligence in production in the first decades of the 2000s. The Chuvash Republic is one of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation; large industrial facilities are concentrated on its territory, the products of which are in demand not only in Russia, but also abroad. For a deeper understanding of the results of their activities, it is necessary to dive into the history of enterprises located on the territory of the Chuvash Republic, which played an important role in the development of the once agricultural region of the country. This becomes possible by turning to the main source of information for the historian ‒ archival documents. The purpose of this article is to identify archival materials on the basis of which the industrial development of Chuvashia at the end of the 20th ‒ beginning of the 21st century is revealed. The methodological basis of the article includes general scientific and special historical methods and approaches. The most important in revealing the topic were the method of scientific objectivity, structural-historical and problem-chronological methods. The author of the research studied more than 30 funds concentrated in the State Archive of the Russian Federation, the State Historical Archive of the Chuvash Republic, and the State Archive of Contemporary History of the Chuvash Republic. The study of archival documents provides a real opportunity for researchers to analyze the history of the republic’s industry, among which mechanical engineering and metalworking, the production of electrical products, the chemical industry, electric power, light industry, and the agro-industrial complex received the greatest results.
Formation of electoral legislation to the estate bodies of noble self-government in the second half of the 18th ‒ early 19th century (based on the materials from the Nizhny Novgorod province)
UDC: 930.25
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Nikita V. Lunin ;
The article examines the evolution of electoral legislation that determined the order of elections to the estate-representative bodies of noble self-government in the second half of the 18th ‒ early 19th century (based on the materials from the Nizhny Novgorod province). The publication reflects changes in the composition of voters, the order of elections and the functions of estate self-government bodies during the specified historical period. The study of the electoral legislation of the Russian nobility is relevant in the modern political context. The results of the study allow us to compare historical electoral practices with the current election processes and the formation of representative offices. New research in the field of electoral legislation and the internal organization of noble self-government at the regional level contribute to the expansion of scientific knowledge in this area. The article pays special attention to the precedent cases that occurred with the institution of noble elections. When writing the work, the analysis of archival documents forming the legislative framework for the organization and conduct of elections to estate bodies was carried out. The relevance lies in an attempt to conduct a full-fledged study on the formation of electoral legislation to the estate self-government bodies in the second half of the 18th ‒ early 19th century, based on archival materials presented in the Central Archive of the Nizhny Novgorod region and published works of other researchers. The purpose of the research is to study the process of formation of electoral legislation to the estate bodies of noble self–government in the second half of the 18th ‒ early 19th century on the materials of the Nizhny Novgorod province. In modern Russian historical science, electoral practices and their legislation are being studied quite actively. Clerical documents from local archives, considering various aspects of the electoral process in estate bodies, are becoming increasingly interesting. The results of the study of the funds of local archives were reference and bibliographic materials, as well as the experience of monographic source research. The formation of electoral legislation was part of the study of works for the academic degree of Doctor of Historical Sciences of S. V. Pershin, for the degree of Candidate of Political Sciences of T. V. Cheshenova.
Features of granting hunting right to indigenous peoples of Russia from XIX to XXI century
UDC: 94 (639.1)
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Sergey I. Minkov ; Elizaveta K. Tselykhova ;
Today, more than 40 indigenous peoples live in Russia. For many of them, hunting is an important component of the way of life in the past and present, the meat of hunted animals and birds is the basis of the diet, and the skins of animals are the opportunity to make traditional clothes or source of money for purchasing goods necessary for life. Throughout the historical period, the aboriginal population as a whole had a number of legally enshrined advantages that allowed them to freely harvesting game animals for their own needs, purchase goods and pay taxes. Depending on the historical period, the composition of the ethno-social group with the right to unlimited hunting arbitrarily changed, gradually decreasing. Based on the analysis of legal acts, the article analyzes the history of the transformation of the right of Siberian indigenous peoples to free hunting from the beginning of the 19th century until now. The diachronic variability of this group and its modern composition are also described. The work was done using the method of comparative law and historical and political research of law. The possibility of using preferences entitled to it in the field of hunting and the associated conflicts in modern legislation of Russia are analyzed separately. The study showed that the enshrined right of indigenous peoples to unlimited hunting is one of the provisions that have undergone the least changes, reflected in most of the regulatory legal acts in the field of hunting. However, the hunting right of indigenous peoples has always been unstable, but throughout the entire period under consideration it was special, arbitrarily granted to various social and ethnic groups. Modern regulatory legal acts in this area contain a large number of contradictions, which introduce direct and explicit restrictions on unhindered access to natural resources.
Transformation of state industrial policy in Soviet Russia – USSR (1917–1964): causes, conditions and factors
UDC: 93/94
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Rashit A. Mukhamedov; Almaz R. Gapsalamov;
Sanctions and political isolation from Western countries have revealed serious economic and technological problems in Russia. Today the country is faced with a difficult choice of the further path of its development; there is an urgent need to determine new directions of state industrial policy required to accelerate the economy and overcome the country’s lagging behind the West. Historical research aimed at a detailed study and analysis of the successes and failures of the Soviet economy can provide some assistance in this. In this regard, the presented article allows us to assess the degree of influence of external and internal factors on the implementation of industrial policy in the USSR. The article examines changes in the directions of industrial policy in historical sequence, the reasons, as well as the role and analysis of the factors influencing it. The methodological basis of the presented article is an approach based on the use of the principle of historicism. It allows you to analyze historical stages in accordance with the specific historical situation in their dialectical relationship and conditionality. The application of the principle of historicism requires the study of any component of the historical process in its development. The authors come to the conclusion that throughout the entire period of the functioning of the Soviet state, there was a rather different set of conditions and factors that influenced the state industrial policy of the Soviet government. However, the determining factor influencing industrial policy was the constant external threat emanating from Western states. This factor, as well as the need to consolidate control over all resources, largely determined the need to create centralized management, which at some stages of history was transformed into super-centralization.
GOELRO plan – a strategic plan of economic zoning in the 1920s (based on the materials of the Chuvash Autonomy)
UDC: 332.02:621.311.1(470.344)«192»
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Lyudmila V. Panteleimonova;
This article discusses the prerequisites for the formation of an economic planning system based on the electrification of the country. The conditions and stages of development of the plan of the State Commission for Electrification of Russia (GOELRO) and its influence on the formation of the methodology for drawing up national economic plans are investigated. The author notes the scientific and technological approach to the development of the electrification plan for the entire Soviet country, implemented through extensive preparatory and survey work. Based on the principles of historicism and objective analysis, the main stages of the implementation of the GOELRO plan in 1920‒1925, and its characteristic features are considered. The researcher studied the course of economic zoning, its subsequent development. The paper analyzes the role of the practical implementation of GOELRO in the transition to a New Economic Policy (NEP). The activities of the central authorities on the development and implementation of the zoning reform in 1918‒1925 are revealed. In the course of the study, the prospects and effectiveness of the country's economic development plan were confirmed, the thesis of electrification as a key stage of the economic development of the state was confirmed. The article considers the GOELRO plan as the first large-scale strategic plan for economic development, which significantly raised the economy of the RSFSR. The zoning of the RSFSR, which began after the formation of national and territorial units, led to a new stage of administrative and territorial reform. The issue of the need to reform the administrative and managerial system, the industrialization of the country and the rise of agriculture, in conditions of devastation, famine and Civil war, is highlighted. The author presents comparative characteristics of industry and agriculture of the administrative-territorial units of the Volga economic region. The article is an economic analysis of the Chuvash Autonomous Region and all the measures that prompted administrative-territorial decisions on the issue of expanding the territory of the region. The paper raises the problems that regional authorities had to solve during economic zoning. The role of planning as the most effective tool for implementing economic transformations during the implementation of the GOELRO plan is substantiated.
Turkish foreign policy during Ataturk’s era: “peace in the state, peace in the world”
UDC: 94(560)
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Evgeniy V. Suslov;
The article is devoted to the study of the processes of the emergence and formation of the Turkish Republic, to the features of its foreign policy in the era of the first president, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, who laid its basic foundations, which even now provide the country with the status of a great regional power, claiming the role of a great power in the Turkic world. The author makes an attempt to find out the reasons for Ataturk's European orientation, which was traced in his character from a young age and continued into his mature years. As a theoretical and methodological basis, the author prefers the modernization approach, namely one of its varieties – so-called ‘catching up’ modernization, which was characteristic of Turkey as a ‘backward society’, forced to respond to external challenges, borrow others’ experience, including technology, institutions, cultural values, not always compatible with their own traditions. Unlike the sultans, Ataturk did not have revanchist ambitions, however, following the Ottoman tradition, he established an authoritarian regime which ensured him to carry out an accelerated modernization of the country. In addition to the above-mentioned approach, the author of the article used the biographical method, which made it possible to highlight the role of the politician's personality as a real bearer of the highest state power. However, for the emergence of a great historical personality, certain conditions are necessary, therefore, paradoxically, for the emergence of great generals, war is needed. In order for a great personality to appear, a situation of maturing social change is necessary. These changes put forward the personality, against their background the personality becomes great, having a large-scale influence on the course of events. The author of the article concludes that the personality of Ataturk as a commander and politician was formed under the influence of the above-mentioned factors. From the point of view of the systematic and synergetic theory, the paper proves that every decisive historical turn in the fate of Turkey was preceded by bifurcation points (the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in the First World War and the collapse of the empire, the coming to power of Ataturk and modernization according to the European model, the policy of neutrality and non-participation in the World War II) which could turn the country in diametrically opposite directions under the influence of various, even insignificant reasons. A special role in the emergence of the synergistic effect belongs to the historical personality, when the less stable society is and the more the order in society (state) is shaken, the greater is the influence exerted by the strength of individuals, their professional qualities, and their willingness to take responsibility for decisions made.
Activities of the Councils of Ministers of the Mari, Mordovian and Chuvash Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics through the prism of contemporaries’ memoirs
UDC: 94(47).084:82-94
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Pavel S. Uchvatov;
Memoirs are one of the important sources on the history of the activities and functioning of the Councils of Ministers of the ASSR, as well as other regional government bodies of the Soviet period. The purpose of this article is to analyze the memoirs of contemporaries, which reflect the activities of the Councils of Ministers of the three neighboring republics of the Volga region – the Mari, Mordovian and Chuvash Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics, the work of their leaders and staff. Many of the authors of such memoirs either worked in the system of governments of the autonomous republics or interacted closely with it, which increases the value of their works as a historical source. When considering the memoirs, a complex of general scientific, as well as special-scientific methods, including methods of text analysis and a historical-comparative method, was used. The views of the authors of the memoirs on various aspects in the work of the Councils of Ministers of the Autonomous Republics are noted: the interaction of the ASSR governments with regional party committees, Councils of various levels, and higher authorities; implementation of personnel policy; activities of the Councils of Ministers and their apparatus; attitude to initiatives coming from “above”. Memoirs of regional state and party leaders were selected as materials for scientific research: the first secretaries of the regional committees of the CPSU A. I. Berezin, A. P. Petrov, I. P. Prokopyev; the chairmen of the Councils of Ministers of the Autonomous Republics A. A. Vasiliev, G. I. Kondratiev and V. S. Uchaykin; other regional Soviet party leaders – P. A. Almakaev, G. I. Minin, A. N. Porshakov and others.
Theatre groups of the Mari ASSR during the Great Patriotic War
UDC: 792.03+930.85
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Yulia Yu. Tsykina;
Representatives of national creative schools, among which the figures of the Mari ASSR theatre art should be noted, played a significant role in approaching the Great Victory. The relevance of this article is determined by the fact that until now this aspect of the functioning of Mari national culture in the specified chronological framework has not been comprehensively considered. The basis of this study was the documents found in the funds of the State Archive of the Republic of Mari El. In addition to the indicated source, the materials of the republican periodical press of the Great Patriotic War period were used in writing this article. When developing this issue, the main methods were “from the abstract to the concrete and from the concrete to the abstract”, which allowed us to identify common and special phenomena in the development of the All-Union and Mari musical cultures during the Great Patriotic War. Critical and concrete-historical methods were involved in the consideration of a number of sources (in particular, archival materials) and their verification. The use of the description method in combination with analysis made it possible to clearly and logically highlight the events, phenomena, processes that took place in the national theatre art in the context of socio-political events that took place in the Soviet state during the Great Patriotic War. In the process of analyzing the activity of theatre groups of the Mari ASSR in 1941‒1945 the peculiarities of the repertoire and methods of work of the republic’s theatres, as well as ways of providing material and financial assistance to the front were revealed. The conclusion is made about the significant contribution of the republic’s theatre groups in raising the morale of combatants and home front workers, strengthening the cohesion of the population, providing all possible material assistance to the front.
“Volga ‒ Yangtze” format as a neo-model of interregional cooperation development in the framework of building a “community with a common destiny for mankind”
UDC: 94
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Anna F. Chernova;
The article is devoted to the phenomenon of interregional cooperation of the Volga Federal District and Upper and Middle Yangtze river provinces, which obtains a great significance in contributing to the development of economic and trade intergovernmental cooperation, as well as youth exchange programs. Resemblance of geographic conditions lays as the basis for the exchange of experience in solving the problems of territories located along large waterways. The aim of the work is a retrospective analysis of the development of various directions of Russian-Chinese interregional cooperation in the “Volga-Yangtze” format and its significance in the implementation of the PRC’s concept of building a “community with a common destiny for mankind”. The research is based on the analysis of official documents, archive materials of the MFA office in Nizhny Novgorod, as well as the articles dedicated to the interregional cooperation of Russian and China and the concept of “community with a common destiny for mankind”. The article uses systemic, comparative-historical, statistical, retrospective methods, as well as the methodology of systemic and strategic analysis. The author demonstrates, that the economic and trade interaction of “Volga ‒ Yangtze” format has shown positive dynamics, however cultural and humanitarian cooperation has turned into the flagship of the bilateral development. The key direction of the last mentioned is the conduction of mutual events in the sphere of youth politics. Various events and forums are organized annually on the parity basis. The established Association of Universities of the Volga Federal District of the Russian Federation and Upper and Middle Yangtze river provinces of the People’s Republic of China gives students the opportunity to participate in joint educational programs and scientific research. Thus, within the “Volga ‒ Yangtze” framework, a platform for international cooperation has been built, uniting the young generation of the two countries. Thus, further promotion of the “Volga ‒Yangtze” project will contribute not only to the strengthening of Russian-Chinese partnership relations, but also to the implementation of the idea of building a “community with a common destiny for mankind”.
On the prospects of using the institution of public control in the mechanism of countering illicit trafficking of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances
UDC: 342
Section: LAW
Authors: Vitaly V. Goncharov; Anna A. Borisova; Elena G. Petrenko;
The article is devoted to the analysis of the prospects of using the institution of public control in the mechanism of countering illicit trafficking of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances in the Russian Federation. The purpose of the study is not only to formalize and study the problems that hinder the joint efforts of public authorities and subjects of public control in countering the illicit trafficking of these drugs and substances, but also to develop and justify a system of measures to resolve these problems. Materials and methods: a) this article uses various research methods, in particular, formal-logical; historical-legal; comparative-legal; statistical; sociological; b) the norms of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and current legislation, materials of practical activities of subjects of public control, scientific and educational literature on public control. Drug addiction in the modern world is one of the main factors in reducing the duration and quality of human life, increasing the mortality rate. This requires the implementation of measures to counter the illicit trafficking of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances by public authorities together with civil society institutions, including the institution of public control. The paper formalizes and explores the main problems associated with the use of the institution of public control in the mechanism of countering illicit trafficking of narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances and their precursors in the Russian Federation. A system of measures to resolve them has been developed and justified, including by: a) formalizing the institution of public control in the Constitution of the Russian Federation; b) developing and adopting the Federal Law “On public control over activities related to the control of the turnover of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances”; c) expanding the powers of subjects of public control in this area of public administration, as well as creating new varieties of these subjects; d) using modern information and communication technologies; e) consolidating the system of measures of legal responsibility for countering the legitimate activities of subjects of public control; f) using positive foreign experience.