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VESTNIK 1 (37) 2024
Date publication on the site:
2024-05-29 08:41:56
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Gendarmerie of the North-Western territory of the Russian Empire (1866‒1890s): ensuring internal security
UDC: 93/94
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Sergey V. Ananyev;
This article discusses the activities of local bodies of the Gendarmes Corps in the North-Western Territory of the Russian Empire in the 1866-1890s, as well as threats not only to public, but also to state security. The purpose of the article is to analyze the activities of the local gendarmerie to ensure internal security in the North-Western Territory of the Russian Empire. To achieve this goal, an analysis of unpublished documents from the funds of the State Archive of the Russian Federation, the Russian State Historical Archive, as well as published materials was carried out. The object of the study is the policy of local executive authorities in the field of ensuring state and public security in the region. The complex of police and political measures subsequently adopted by the executive authorities in the fight against the revolutionary populist and then the workers’ movement is listed. Examples of the participation of the gendarmerie corps both in the fight against the revolutionary underground and with open manifestations of a protest nature are given. The work uses retrospective, problem-chronological, historical-comparative, as well as general scientific research methods. The conclusions are based on data from archival sources, memoirs of contemporaries of the events and a number of modern researchers of the problem. This study deepens the information available in Russian historiography on this issue. Based on the conducted research, it is concluded that the gendarmerie of the region played an important role in the fight against the revolutionary movement of the specified period, finding effective responses to threats to internal security until the fall of the monarchy in Russia in 1917.
The problem of Home Rule in assessments of Russian publicists at the beginning of the 20th century
UDC: 94 (417)
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Viktor I. Durov;
At the beginning of the last century in the history of our country, the national question became one of the most pressing in domestic politics. Mechanisms for its solution were also sought in the experience of other countries. The article analyzes the position of the Russian public on the Home Rule bill in Ireland. The approaching 110th anniversary of the adoption of the Third Home Rule Bill by Westminster in September 1914 gives relevance to the study. The main sources were materials from “thick magazines” of the early twentieth century. The research is based mainly on historical-genetic method and historical-comparative method. The article analyzes the positions of liberal, social-democratic and conservative public thought on events in Ireland and England caused by the crisis surrounding the discussion of the Home Rule project. Traditionally, the “Irish question” aroused sympathy in Russian society. The study shows that for Russian publicists the situation in Ireland was consonant with the situation in the Kingdom of Poland, therefore the experience of Home Rule was considered as one of the schemes for granting autonomy to Polish territories. Russian liberals saw in the government system of England and the Home Rule Bill real mechanisms that could be used in their country. The provisions of Home Rule Bill were discussed within the framework of young Russian constitutionalism. Russian conservatives expressed more sympathy for Ulster residents. For socialists, the Irish events were an opportunity to use indirect criticism of their government.
“Places of memory” of the First World War (1914‒1918) in the uyezd city Tsarevokokshaisk / modern Yoshkar-Ola: the experience of systematization
UDC: 94(100)«1914/19»
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Svetlana V. Zhuchkova ;
The anniversary dates of the beginning and end of the First World War ‒ 2014 and 2018 ‒ were marked by an increase in interest in the events of those years in European and Russian historiography. Previously unknown archival materials were published, anniversary conferences were held, and a significant number of studies conducted in line with the latest methodological approaches appeared. Recently, issues of preserving the memory of the First World War have become particularly relevant due to the fact that the last “bearers of collective memory” about it -eyewitnesses and participants in the events - have passed away. Despite all the study of the topic, significant gaps remain in the study of the events of the First World War in those regions where no hostilities took place. The rear regions include the territory of the Mari Territory, and in particular its capital ‒ the city of Tsarevokokshaysk / modern Yoshkar-Ola. This publication presents the results of a study of “places of memory” in the capital of the Mari Republic, which preserved the collective memory of the events of the First World War and emerged as a result of various commemorative practices. The study was carried out using the concept of the French scientist P. Nora about the “commemorative era” and “places of memory”. The subject of the study is “places of memory” and forms of commemoration of the First World War on the territory of Yoshkar-Ola. The purpose of the article is to identify and systematize “places of memory” that store and form the collective memory of the First World War in pre-revolutionary Tsarevokokshaisk and modern Yoshkar-Ola. In accordance with the methodology of historical memory and the concept of P. Nora, the author of the article makes an attempt to systematize such places and identifies several groups of memorial objects: necropolises, historical and architectural monuments, visual sources; artifacts from family archives; research by local historians and professional historians, literary works.
Transformation of the subject of publications in the newspaper “The Young Leninist” as a reflection of the perestroika processes in Mordovia in 1985‒1991
UDC: 94(47).084.9:070.1
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Alexander V. Katorov ;
In terms of the representation of social and political changes, the relationship between government and society during the years of perestroika, the newspaper “The Young Leninist”, aimed at young people, is of undoubted interest. The study of the relevance of the issues of publications and the accentuation in them contributed to the identification of the state of society and the processes that took place at the turn of the XX–XXI centuries. The analysis allowed us to determine that in 1985-1987 the newspaper had little influence on the processes of perestroika, the subject of publications and the presentation of materials remained in line with existing traditions. The changes were manifested in the growth of the description of negative phenomena (drunkenness, thefts, stealing of state property, etc.), as well as of the first economic reforms that did not lead to noticeable results. In 1988‒1989, materials appeared covering the introduction of rental contracts and self-financing of enterprises, the election of executives on an alternative basis, and the description of organized crime among young people and teenagers became particularly relevant. The main innovation of 1990‒1991 was the description of an acute struggle for power, its loss by the communists (A. I. Berezin who was removed from the post of the Chairman of the Supreme Council of the MASSR and the First Secretary of the regional party committee) and taking by the democrats (V. D. Guslyannikov who became the first and the last President of the Mordovian SSR), the role that the Saransk Municipal Executive Committee of People’s Deputies played in this.
From the history of the Beloretsk cast iron-smelting and iron-making factory at the beginning of the 20th century
UDC: 94 (470.5)
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Bulat N. Latypov;
The article presents the history and economic data on the activities of the Beloretsk cast iron-smelting and iron-making plant of the Orenburg province at the beginning of the 20th century. Statistical materials on the Beloretsk plant for the years 1900-1910 are analyzed. The study attempts to reveal the history and show the economic situation of the Beloretsk plant at the beginning of the 20th century. This study provides general information about the plant, shows the mining industry structure and activities. Economic crisis of 1900–1903 and the subsequent industrial depression led factory to a difficult situation. In 1900-1901, 19% of cast iron was sold, and since 1902, the sale of cast iron has stopped. At the beginning of the 20th century, at the Beloretsk plant, out of 3 blast furnaces, only one operated; in 1904, puddling production was stopped, in 1907, furnace production was stopped, the procurement of firewood and charcoal was reduced, and ore mining was also stopped. During the Revolution of 1905-1907, strikes, rallies and demonstrations were repeatedly held at the plant. With the onset of a new industrial boom the Beloretsk plant increased steel production. At the same time, the modernization process continued at the Beloretsk plant: the energy sector was restructured, a power plant was built, electric lifts were installed in the blast furnace shop, and rolling mills equipped with electric motors were installed in the rolling shops. In 1908, the third open-hearth furnace was launched at the plant. In 1911–1913, the narrow-gauge railway Beloretsk - Zaprudnaya station was built, connecting the Beloretsk plant with the Samara-Zlatoust railway As a result of the analysis of statistical data on the Beloretsk plant, a decrease in the production of copper and puddling iron, and cast iron smelting was revealed.
The role of satyrs in the cult of Dionysus according to ancient Greek vase paintings
UDC: 93/94
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Yulia S. Obidina;
The cult of Dionysus played one of the leading roles in the formation of ancient civilization. Due to its versatility, this cult is extremely difficult to interpret. For a number of reasons, today it is necessary to look for new approaches to the study of this cult. The purpose of the article is to show the role of satyrs in the cult of Dionysus, based on data from ancient Greek vase painting. Van Gennep's concept of liminality was used as a methodology for studying the cult practice of Dionysus. A hermeneutic approach, an intertextual approach and an interpretative method were used. Visual sources were considered as a communicative system based on the experience of the French School (François Lissargues). A systematic approach was taken to integrate Dionysian practices into the social context. To understand the social stratification of the cult of Dionysus, it is necessary to include in the study of this cult, along with maenads, satyrs, who were also the sacred companions of the god. Satyrs are present in a limited number of myths, but their images are quite numerous in vase painting, while maenads remained unknown to vase painting for almost half a century after the appearance of images of Dionysus. The image of a satyr can be considered as a mirror or inverted behavioral stereotype, both social and religious. Unlike the maenads, he shows the “desirability” of social action in certain historical eras not for the marginal strata of society, but precisely for those who form its basis ‒ the civil collective. Visual sources, unlike written ones, make it possible to include men in Dionysian practices, who are represented in vase paintings in the form of satyrs. The inclusion of male characters opens up the possibility of new interpretations of the cult, especially its significance for the social sphere of ancient society.
Mari State Pedagogical Institute named after N. K. Krupskaya in the early 1950s
UDC: 378/6(470.343)(09)
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Aleksey G. Oshaev;
This article discusses the development of the first higher educational institution of the republic – the Mari State Pedagogical Institute named after N.K. Krupskaya in the early 1950s. The work on studying the history of the institute is an important indicator of respect for the rich historical heritage of the formation and development of the higher professional education system in the region. The purpose of the article is to study the most important events in the life of the Institute in the early 1950s, to determine the contribution of the head and teachers of the Institute to the training of teaching staff, to identify achievements in the field of research activities. The paper uses the documents from the State Archive of the Republic of Mari El and the archive of the Mari State University, published materials and scientific literature on the history of the Institute, introduced into scientific circulation. The methodological basis of the work was the principles of dialectics and historicism, objectivity and consistency of scientific analysis. Special historical methods were used: comparative-historical, problem-chronological, historical-biographical. The article allows us to expand our understanding of the activities of the pedagogical Institute in the early 1950s. During this period, the director of the institute was an experienced leader S. A. Korobov, who, together with the teaching staff, made a great contribution to the progressive development of the Institute. The growth of scientific qualifications of teaching staff contributed to a noticeable revival of the Institute's research activities. The opening of the Faculty of Foreign Languages was a major event in the life of the Institute. Much attention in the process of professional training of students was paid to pedagogical practice. At that time, the tradition of organizing and holding alumni meetings was born, during which they had the opportunity for close communication and exchange of teaching experience.
Islamic East: the view of the English intellectual R. Southey
UDC: 94(410)
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Ekaterina A. Yazykova;
Most scientists working on the study of the relationship between Britain and the Islamic world pay little attention to the consideration of the reaction of British intellectuals of the era of Romanticism to Islam. In this regard, it seems advisable to turn to the study of ideas about the East among English historians and thinkers of the era of Romanticism. The article focuses on the reaction of British intellectuals of the era of Romanticism to Islam, in particular of the future poet laureate Robert Southey (1774‒1843). Fascinated by Napoleon’s decisive invasion of Egypt, but knowing little about the realities of the French attitude towards the local population, Romantic poets reveled in both revolutionary and oriental themes, depicting the Prophet’s life path as an ambivalent allegory of Napoleon’s conquests. R. Southey was no exception. The purpose of this article is to show the evolution of R. Southey’s views on the East in general and on Islam in particular. In 1801, one of the most important works of R. Southey– the poem “Thalaba the Destroyer” was published. “Thalaba the Destroyer” is the first work of R. Southey, in which he attempted to depict all the mythologies of the world in an epic form. Also, this work by R. Southey testified to the growing political orthodoxy of the thinker, in a few years he moved from outright Jacobin radicalism to Tory conservatism. “Thalaba the Destroyer” became R. Southey’s work, which appeared on the threshold of his changing views. R. Southey’s youthful interest in political education and the desire to change society was not completely lost. By the age of twenty-six, R. Southey began to form an increasingly conservative view. He recognized the value and importance of his country’s culture for the whole world. The main source for the author of the article is the personal correspondence of R. Southey, as well as the poem “Thalaba the Destroyer”. The article is written on the basis of the principles of historicism and objectivity using methods of analysis, comparison, and description. In conclusion, the article concludes that R. Southey’s interest in Islam has gone a long way towards formation, development and extinction. Conventionally, it can be divided into three consecutive stages: 1) interest in Muhammad’s life; 2) refusal to collaborate with S. T. Coleridge on the epic “The Flight and Return of Muhammad” in 1800, followed by extensive independent work on the poem “Thalaba the Destroyer”; 3) conservative denial of Islam, adherence to the traditions of the Church of England. The author concluded that “Thalaba the Destroyer” became the work of R. Southey, promoting the imperial policy of Great Britain abroad. R. Southey continued to carefully incorporate Quranic motifs in his poems, however, in the end; he abandoned the study and popularization of Islam, becoming a conservative defender of the Church of England and the state.
Public control in construction: the place and role of self-regulatory organizations
UDC: 342
Section: LAW
Authors: Vitaly V. Goncharov; Anna A. Borisova; Elena G. Petrenko;
This article is devoted to the public law analysis of the place and role of self-regulatory organizations (hereinafter also referred to as SRO) in organizing and conducting public control activities in construction in the Russian Federation. The paper substantiates the place and role of the institution of public control in the system of legal guarantees for the implementation, protection and defense of the constitutional principles of democracy and the participation of citizens in the management of state affairs. The list of possible subjects of public control in construction, as well as the place of SRO in it is analyzed. The purpose of the study is not only to identify, formalize and analyze the main problems that hinder the organization and implementation of public control of SRO in construction, but also to develop a system of measures to resolve these problems. Among these problems, the work examines: the lack of consolidation of the institution of public control in the Constitution of the Russian Federation; the lack of certainty in legislation regarding the grounds and limits of public control in relation to construction organizations (private developers); the lack of consolidation in the legislation on SRO of the possibility of organizing public control by them in relation to the activities, acts and decisions of their members; the lack of detail of the mechanism of public control in the Urban Planning Code of the Russian Federation, weak real powers of SRO in construction in the field of organization and implementation of public control measures; poor use of positive foreign experience of SRO participation in public control events; insufficient organizational and technical base of SRO for the implementation of public control and their dependence on SRO members in this matter. The resolution of these problems is possible by: incorporation of the institution of public control into the Basic Law of the country with the consolidation of the possibility of its implementation in relation to the activities, acts and decisions of any legal entities; introducing amendments to the legislation on public control regarding the fact that the activities, acts and decisions of legal entities (including the construction sector) may be subject to public control if this affects the rights and freedoms of man and citizen; inclusion of the institution of public control in the legislation on SRO as a separate chapter (section); detailing the mechanism of public control in the Urban Planning Code of the Russian Federation with the expansion of the powers of SRO in the construction sector to organize and conduct public control activities; organization by the Public Chamber of the Russian Federation, together with relevant ministries and departments, of the analysis of foreign experience of SRO participation in the functioning of public control with its subsequent adaptation and implementation into Russian legislation; adoption by the Government of the Russian Federation of a set of federal programs aimed at developing the organizational and technical base and independence (independence) of SRO as subjects of public control.