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VESTNIK 3 (35) 2023
Date publication on the site:
2023-11-21 11:15:03
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Some aspects of the education system of Akmolinsk of the last third of the XIX ‒ early XX centuries
UDC: 908
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Estella A. Abdullina;
The article is part of the study of the urban culture of Akmolinsk in the post-reform period. The urban culture of Akmolinsk in modern Kazakh historiography is considered as the cradle of the modern high status of Astana. But the microhistory of the county town of Akmolinsk, various aspects of the daily life of citizens remain in the shadows. The article examines the process of formation and development of the system of school and vocational education in Akmolinsk from 1870 to 1917. The development of school education in the late XIX – early XX centuries in Russia was an integral part of urban culture. The coverage of school education of girls and boys, representatives of different classes and nationalities by school education in Akmolinsk has not been fully studied. In this article, the author systematized archival material related to the formation and organization of the work of the City three-grade school of Akmolinsk and the Teachers' seminary. On January 7, 1874, the governor of Akmolinsk signed a petition for the opening of a parish school in Akmolinsk. By the Regulations of 1881 on the establishment of a school unit in Akmolinsk and Semipalatinsk regions, in Akmolinsk on July 1, 1881, the parish school was transformed into the City three-grade school, in which 98 students were studying by 1887. From the 1914‒1915 academic year, the City three-grade school was transformed into a Higher primary school. In 1887, the share of Akmolinsk residents studying in schools was 0.8 %, in 1916 it was 5 %. Due to the shortage of teachers in the region, the Teacher's seminary was opened in Akmolinsk in 1916. Education in Akmolinsk is viewed through the prism of the fate of the residents of Akmolinsk in the period from 1870 to 1917. The article was written on the basis of archival material of the State Archive of the Akmolinsk region (SAAR) and the State Archive of the Tomsk region (SATR).
The activities of the People’s Commissariat of Education of the Chuvash ASSR on the elimination of illiteracy and semiliteracy of pre-conscripts in the 1930s
UDC: 930.253:37(470.344)
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Maleka N. Gasanova;
The article is devoted to the analysis of the activities of the People’s Commissariat of Education of the Chuvash Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic to eliminate illiteracy and semiliteracy among pre-conscripts in the 1930s. The basis of this study was documentary materials extracted by the author from the funds of the Council of Ministers of the Chuvash Republic (F. R-221), the Ministry of Education, Science and Higher Education of the Chuvash Republic (F. R-221) and the Supreme Council of the Chuvash Republic (F. R-1041) of the State Historical Archive of the Chuvash Republic. The article describes how much attention on the part of the Soviet authorities was paid to the problem of training pre-conscripts. Using the example of a national republic, the article lists the measures taken in the 1930s in order to increase the educational level of pre-conscripts; the author gives an assessment of the effectiveness of these measures. The author shows the difficulties faced annually on the ground during the campaign to eliminate illiteracy and semiliteracy among pre-conscripts. The shortcomings in the work of regional public education bodies, which the People’s Commissariat of Education of the Chuvash ASSR sought to eliminate, are shown. It is noted that often the digital data presented in district reports and the reporting materials of the People’s Commissariat of Education did not correspond to the actual data on the number of pre-conscripts actually trained. As a result of the study, it is concluded that in general, in the 1930s, it was possible to reduce the problem of illiteracy and semiliteracy of pre-conscripts. However, this usually happened in violation of the established deadlines, which had to be extended in many administrative regions of the republic. In terms of quality, the preparation of pre-conscripts also left much to be desired – many of them still read and wrote poorly.
The situation of prisoners of war of the Russian Empire in the post-revolutionary period of 1918-1920 based on the materials of the State Archive of the Republic of Mari El
UDC: 94(00)"1917/19"(470.343)
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Evgeny A. Groznov; Sergey V. Starikov;
The article is devoted to the problem of organizing assistance to Russian soldiers who were captured during the First World War after their repatriation. The history of studying this problem has a rich history, starting with the writings of contemporaries of those events. In the last two decades, scientific works have begun to appear, affecting not only the all-Russian, but also the regional aspect of the problem. Nevertheless, this problem has not been studied enough by region. That is why the main emphasis in the article was placed on the regional component of this issue through the interpretation of events on a national scale, how and under what conditions support was provided to prisoners of war who returned to Kozmodemyansk and Krasnokokshaysk districts of the Kazan province. The article, based on the materials of the State Archive of the Republic of Mari El, examines the forms of assistance to prisoners of war from the Soviet state, the creation of special departments for refugees and prisoners of war under local councils, accounting and control, a set of measures for material support of this category of the population, conducting propaganda and other cultural events for those who returned from captivity. It is noted that former prisoners of war joined the ranks of the Red Army. Their knowledge and military training were used by the Soviet military-political leadership to strengthen the defense. Some of the prisoners of war were involved in local government bodies and military commissariats. This research is based on the principles of historicism and objectivity, which, in the context of the development of Russian historical science, makes it possible to assess the events of that time in a new way, to more adequately present the situation in the center and on the ground related to the position and use of this category of the Russian population during the Civil War.
National minorities of the Turkic peoples and interethnic interaction in the Republics of Mordovia and Mari El, Ulyanovsk region: ethnosociological study
UDC: 93/94
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Alexey I. Mineev; Elena K. Mineeva; Tatyana N. Ivanova; Alexey N. Starostin;
The purpose of the article is to study interethnic interaction in the regions of the Russian Federation, as well as to study the Turkic peoples living as national minorities in neighboring regions of the country, where Finno-Ugric peoples and Russians predominate (the Republics of Mari El, Mordovia; Ulyanovsk region), through conducting a sociological survey in 2023. Methodologically, the authors follow the fundamental principles and methods of historical and sociological research. The principle of historicism, a social-constructivist approach, as well as survey methods, comparative historical, statistical, in-depth interviews, and historical imagology were used. More than 800 young people were interviewed in the studied regions of the Russian Federation during 2023, the survey was conducted in regional capitals, namely in the cities of Yoshkar-Ola, Saransk, Ulyanovsk. In all 3 regions studied, the majority of respondents identified themselves as Russians. The results showed that in the Republics of Mari El and Mordovia, despite their national status, the largest percentage of ethnically homogeneous families was recorded. In the Ulyanovsk region this percentage is much lower. The vast majority of respondents in all studied regions are well acquainted with their national culture. A separate block of questions was devoted to cross-border interaction. The majority of the population in the subjects of the Russian Federation under consideration are Russians, at the same time, representatives of the Turkic peoples occupy one of the most important places in these regions. As the study showed, the least impact of assimilation processes on the Turkic population is in the Ulyanovsk region. In Mari El and Mordovia there is a very high proportion of those who identify themselves as Russians, despite their Turkic and Finno-Ugric roots. An important conclusion, in the authors’ opinion, is that the vast majority of respondents do not see any grounds for interethnic and interreligious conflicts. The absence of obvious conflict potential is determined primarily by the traditional historically determined close interaction and contacts of neighboring regions of European Russia.
Local self-government in Russia: our journey of a century and a half
UDC: 342
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Denis S. Mikheev;
The transformations taking place today in the system of public power, caused by the constitutional reform of 2020, have largely affected local self-government. It is now at a turning point in the transition from one model of local government organization to another, which not everyone understands. Hence the special demand for research on these processes, which, along with legal aspects, include a rich arsenal of Russian historical science, which preserves the invaluable experience of zemstvo institutions of monarchical Russia of the second half of the XIX century. The necessity of constitutional changes in the institution of local self-government, which are associated with the non-viable model laid down in the Constitution of 1993, is analyzed. Being based on the separation of local self-government bodies from the system of state authorities, it has been subjected to numerous legal adjustments for almost thirty years, often regarded as unsystematic legislative regulation. However, a cross-section of scientific opinions revealed that the doctrine has long given an objective assessment of the fallacy of the constitutional model of local self-government, which led to its unjustified alienation from state power. An appeal to Russian historiography shows that the model of the organization of zemstvo self-government, initially chosen, underwent significant changes in a quarter of a century in the direction of strengthening the state principle in the activities of zemstvo institutions. The solution of the research tasks was carried out using a variety of methodological tools, including general and private legal methods of cognition, as well as the arsenal of historical science. The result was conclusions about the logic and validity of the inclusion of local self-government in a single system of public authority, which is due to the course of its historical development and the modern needs of the state.
On the issue of continuity in the organization of local self-government
UDC: 342
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Tatiana N. Mikheeva;
The operation of local self-government in Russia over the past decades has been in a “turbulent mode”, as evidenced by about two hundred amendments to the legislation on local self-government. The reason for this is increasingly being called the model of local government organization that does not correspond to Russian realities, which was fixed in constitutional norms in 1993 through the reception of Western models. This model assumes a complete separation of local government bodies from state authorities, which is detrimental to local government, and does not contribute to the coordinated work of the entire state mechanism. The purpose of the study is to analyze the constitutional regulation of the local government structure in the Soviet period preceding the appearance of the Basic Law of the Russian Federation of 1993. The achievement of this goal was facilitated by the author’s use of a set of methods of knowledge: dialectics, legal science, historical science. The characteristic features in the organization and activity of the Soviet system of “local bodies of state authorities and management”, which allowed our country to take a leading position in the world, but subsequently completely rejected, are considered. The unique experience of the operation of local authorities, built in China on a similar model, and succeeded, is analyzed. The conclusion about the necessity of using the principle of historical continuity in the constitutional transformations of local self-government is substantiated, bearing in mind the noteworthy domestic practice of the Soviet period.
The city self-government bodies of the Yaroslavl province in the process of preparing and conducting the visit of Emperor Nicholas II on May 21‒23, 1913
UDC: 9.930.85
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Yaroslav V. Punevsky;
The article deals with the activities of city dumas and councils of the Yaroslavl province in the process of preparing and conducting the visit of Emperor Nicholas II. The study of the contribution of city self-government to such an important event for provincial life reinforces the opinion existing in historiography about the importance of city self-government. The purpose of the study is to identify the role of city governments in the process of preparing for this event important for them and the provincial authorities, to list specific measures to prepare for the emperor’s visit, taken by the Yaroslavl, Rostov and Petrov city governments, in cities through which the emperor's path was directly ran. The research is based on the study of periodicals, memoir sources, as well as unpublished documents from the funds of the State Archives of the Yaroslavl region. The historical-systemic, comparative-historical and problem-chronological methods were used in the work. To implement these activities in Rostov, a special commission was created on the issue of meeting the emperor, in the Yaroslavl self-government the commission of the city government for improvement was significantly strengthened. The city councils maintained close contacts with the provincial administration and zemstvo institutions. The description of the results of the work of city councils on the decoration of city council buildings, contained in periodicals, testifies to the very significant successes of city authorities. However, there were also problems, such as the conflict between the Rostov city government and the contractor D. I. Anikin. Another major problem was the traditionally poor state of the city’s road network. The city government bodies of the Yaroslavl province played a significant role in the preparation of the visit of Nicholas II. Work in this direction required very significant financial expences and efforts, which to a certain extent characterized the degree of solvency of city self-governments in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century.
Turkic peoples of the Ural-Volga region in the conditions of interfaith interaction at the beginning of the XXI century
UDC: 37.035.4
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Alexey N. Starostin; Elena K. Mineeva;
The purpose of the study was a theoretical and methodological study of the current state and specific practices of interfaith interaction between the Russian Orthodox Church, traditional Islam and other Russian confessions on the territory of the Urals and Volga Federal Districts, the impact of this interaction on the stability of the ethno-confessional situation at the federal and regional levels, as well as participation in this process of the Turkic peoples of the Ural-Volga region. Comparative religious studies and normative doctrinal approaches to the consideration of the problem were taken as a methodological basis of the study. The study is based on the analysis of social documents of traditional confessions and the content of events with the participation of religious organizations of the Ural-Volga region. The main directions of such interaction are singled out, in particular: participation in interreligious advisory bodies (both independent and operating under regional executive bodies of state power and local self-government), cooperation in the field of such topics as prison and military service (satisfaction of the religious needs of citizens who are in places of deprivation of liberty or in military service and, in particular, in a war zone), interaction between religious educational institutions of different faiths to instill in students - future clergymen a culture of interreligious dialogue, joint social initiatives of religious organizations, work with youth, educational activities, sports events and tourism and pilgrimage activities. The authors come to the conclusion that one of the pioneers in this area is the Republic of Tatarstan, it is there that the most interesting initiatives are born, which are then taken into service in other regions of Russia, but the experience of the Orenburg, Sverdlovsk, Tyumen regions, Perm Territory is in some ways very unique or innovative. Since the heads of the Spiritual Administrations of Muslims and imams in most regions of the Volga and Ural federal districts are Tatars (overwhelmingly) and Bashkirs (much less often), that is, representatives of the Turkic peoples of the Ural-Volga region, they, actively participating in interreligious interaction with representatives of other faiths, first of all, with the Orthodox, thereby setting an example for their fellow tribesmen.
The contribution of women of the Volzhsk district of the Mari ASSR to the victory during the Great Patriotic War 1941‒1945 (on the materials of the newspaper “Volzhskaya Pravda”)
UDC: 433
Section: HISTORY
Authors: Alina B. Filonova;
The Great Patriotic War is a period when the whole country defended its independence in the face of fascism. All the rear regions, including the Mari Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, made their own contribution to the defeat of the enemy. The purpose of this article is to analyze the contribution of women of the city of Volzhsk and the Volzhsk district of the Mari ASSR to the victory during the Great Patriotic War of 1941‒1945 based on the materials of the regional newspaper “Volzhskaya Pravda”. Their role in the development of agriculture, industry, education and their wide participation in the patriotic movement to help the front are considered. The main research methods were both general scientific (comparison, analysis, description) and special-historical (historical-genetic, historical-comparative) methods. The work is based on a wide range of scientific literature and a unique historical source. With the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, the bulk of the able-bodied male population was mobilized to the front, and therefore there was an acute shortage of qualified workers. In the Volzhsk district, as well as throughout the republic, men who went to the front in almost all spheres of public life were replaced by women. In agriculture, the women of the region worked in the fields, entered into socialist competition, fought for the preservation of livestock, and mastered new professions. At existing industrial enterprises, women workers fulfilled and exceeded the established plans, joined the Stakhanov movement, continued to work at the machines instead of their husbands, fathers and brothers. A wide manifestation of patriotism was the involvement of the entire population, including the women of the region, in the movement to raise funds for the construction of military equipment, warm clothes and gifts for the soldiers of the Red Army. In the field of education in the city of Volzhsk and in the Volzhsk district, pedagogical workers fought for the progress of students, provided all possible assistance to collective farms and involved school-age children in work in the fields. During the Great Patriotic War, the female population of the Volzhsk district made a significant contribution to the development of the republic, thereby bringing the Victory closer.
Public control in Russia as a tool to counteract centrifugal tendencies in public administration
UDC: 342
Section: LAW
Authors: Vitaly V. Goncharov; Anna A. Borisova; Elena G. Petrenko; Lyudmila A. Spector;
This article is devoted to the constitutional and legal analysis of the place and role of the institute of public control in the mechanism of countering centrifugal tendencies in public administration in the Russian Federation. The purpose of the research is not only to study modern problems that hinder the development of the institution of public control in the mechanism of countering centrifugal tendencies in public administration, but also to optimize it in order to ensure the preservation and development of state sovereignty, territorial integrity and independence of the Russian Federation. Materials and methods: a) various research methods are used in this article, in particular, formal-logical; historical-legal; comparative-legal; statistical; sociological; b) the norms of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and current legislation, materials of practical activities of subjects of public control, scientific and educational literature on public control were used as research materials. Despite the fact that the key constitutional principle of the organization and activity of public authorities in Russia is a combination of centralism and decentralization, the predominance of centrifugal tendencies in public administration at the present time in the conditions of negative external influence on our country from a number of foreign states and international organizations will create the basis for the organization and implementation of the processes of undermining state sovereignty, independence and the territorial integrity of the Russian Federation. In this regard, it is of particular scientific and practical interest to study the possibility of using various civil society institutions in countering attempts to organize and implement these processes. The paper formalizes and investigates the main problems that hinder the organization and implementation of public control as a tool to counteract centrifugal tendencies in public administration, and develops and justifies a system of measures to resolve them. The institution of public control in Russia acts as an effective tool to counteract centrifugal tendencies in public administration, but its optimization requires the resolution of numerous problems, including by making appropriate amendments and additions to the Constitution of the Russian Federation and legislation.