- Vestnik 1 (21) 2020
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- 2020-05-19 08:13:39
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OLD IRISH IMMRAMA IN THE CONTEXT OF RUSSIAN DISSERTATIONS
Authors: Anastasiya A. Bogdanova;
Introduction. The article is devoted to the phenomenon of medieval Irish stories The Voyages (Old Irish Immrama, VII–X cen.) illustrated in the context of Russian Theses. Using the material of thirteen dissertations we could point out six themes the Immrama are involved in. The main are the problem of the Celtic (Irish) Otherworld, the Immrama in the Irish Christian tradition, nativism and anti-nativism discussion. The purpose of the article is to depict Immrama’s place in the Russian dissertation experience. Materials and methods. The research is based on sources from the Open Digital Dissertation Library of the Russian State Library (RSL) and the ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global database. Some Theses was also taken from the University of Tyumen Library and the European Periodicals Fund of the Russian National Library (NLR). During the investigation thematic and comparative analysis was fulfilled and statistics was prepared about Theses quality, time of defense and scientific field. Results and discussion. The Theses authors appeal to the Immrama within the framework of the Celtic Otherworld, Irish Christian culture and other themes (as example, the Celtic Revival in Ireland). The author also concerns such problems as the phenomenon of the Irish pilgrimage (lat. peregrinatio) and the nativists and antinativists discussion as they presented in Russian Theses. Conclusion. The Immrama has been established as a perspective interdisciplinary object, since the development of new theoretical knowledge occurs in various aspects (philological, mythological, cultural and historical). At the same time, Theses authors reflect on the contemporary situation in Celtic Studies making their own perception.
THE JEMIET ESTATE AND THE LAST WILL OF THE MAID OF HONOR OF THE IMPERIAL COURT OF BARONESS MARIA PETROVNA FROM THE FREDERICKS CLAN
Authors: Evgeniya V. Bulavintseva;
In this article, for the first time on the basis of literary and archival materials, information on the development of a place called “Jemietˮ on the South Coast of Crimea was reconstructed. The name to this estate was given by one of the founders of the Russian society of the Red Cross, maid of honor of Their Imperial Majesties Elizaveta Fedorovna and Maria Alexandrovna - Baroness Maria Petrovna Fredericks (1832–1903). The article is based on new, previously unpublished materials about the life and work of M. P. Fredericks and about the area where she lived and worked. The author refutes many information published in open sources that duplicate errors about the life and personality of maid of honor of the imperial court. The article describes in detail previously unknown episodes of the life of the philanthropist and founder of Blagoveshchenskaya community in Crimea on the Jemiet estate. The article uses an analytical approach to a review of the area history, shows the philosophy of the area through the ethical views and activities of the landlady, including her last will, which was reflected in two letters, conditionally called “testament”. Many of the information and archival materials specified in the article were first put into scientific circulation.
MAENADISM IN THE BACCHAE OF EURIPIDES: HISTORICAL REALITIES IN THE MIRROR OF THE OFFICIAL CULT
Authors: Yuliya S. Obidina;
The article discusses the ritual practice of the cult of Dionysos, described by the ancient Greek tragedian Euripides in the play “Bacchaeˮ. As research methods chosen method of historical reconstruction and is actively used by anthropologists concept of liminality. The purpose of the article is to investigate the correspondence between the ideas of Euripides on the worship of Bacchus, recorded in the text of the tragedy, and the practice of veneration of Dionysos in the late V – early IV century BC in Athens through the consideration of female ritual practices in honor of Dionysos – maenadism. The relevance of the article is associated with an extreme deficiency in the modern domestic research field works dealing with women's ritual practices in general, and maenadism in particular. It is also emphasized that the play shows one of the most extreme and polarized versions of the female ritual, placed in the existing corps of the tragedy. The clearly hyperbolized image of the ritual by the tragedian is especially emphasized, which did not correspond to the Athenian realities, to modern poet. An analysis of the text of the tragedy shows that there is no connection between the official Athenian cult and the “Bacchae”, and there is no explanation why Euripides described the maenad in the play in this way. It is noted that the religion of Dionysos is incorrectly to interpret both from the point of view of indirect expression of social emotions (J. Harrison), and from the point of view of manifestation of religious hysteria (E. Dodds). Particular attention is paid to such aspects of the cult of Dionysos as sparagmos and omophagy, which reflect not the orgiastic nature of the cult, but a marginal social order for a short period of abnormality. It is concluded that the Euripides descriptions of maenadism, constantly appearing in the play, are clearly not a figment of the playwright’s imagination, but are associated with the rite of oribasia, the ritual of which was recognized as part of the Athenian religion. Maenads are represented in the play not a mythological character, but the human type observed in historical retrospect, which reflects the emotional state of Dionysian adherents in the performance of cult rituals.
THE CHRISTENED MARI OF BASHKIRIA: THE HISTORY OF FORMATION AND ETHNOCULTURAL FEATURES OF CONFESSIONAL COMMUNITY
Authors: Ranus R. Sadikov;
Introduction. There are some christened Mari people who live in several settlements in the Krasnokamsk district of the Republic of Bashkortostan. This ethno-confessional community was formed in the midst of the Mari “pagan” invironment; in isolation from other unchristened groups and outside of the common Christianization of the Mari people. Possessing their self-name (the Kreshin Mari) in a confessional sense they clearly separate themselves from their unchristened tribesmen. The purpose of the given research is an attempt to reconstruct the history of formation of the ethno-confessional community of the christened Mari people in Bashkiria and to reveal its ethnocultural features. Materials and methods. The sources of the article are the archival documents which testify the christening of this group of the Mari population in the first half of the XIX century; the works of church authors of the late XIX − early XX centuries, highlighting their religious state, as well as the empirical ethnographic materials of the author’s field researches which reveal their modern ethnocultural identity. The research is based on the principle of historicism; the main methods are the historical-genetic, the comparative- historical, and the problematic-chronological. Results of the research, discussions. The archival documents indicate that a small group of the christened Mari appeared in the Birsk uyezd in the second quarter of the XVIII century (the so called old Christians). Probably under their influence, some of the Mari people from the surrounding villages also converted to the Orthodox Christianity (the so called new Christians). In the 1840s, some of the Mari people, the state peasants of this district, were forcibly converted to Christianity. But even after the convertion to Orthodox Christianity, they continued to keep their traditional religiose rites and customs, too. At the end of the XIX century and the beginning of the XX century as a result of missionary activities, the role of Orthodoxy in their lives increased. Conclusion. The confessional belonging of the Kreshin Mari gave rise to their ethnocultural identity. Today, they form a kind of ethno-confessional community within the Pribelskaya group of the Eastern Mari.
KOZMODEMYANSK LEFT SRS ON THE EVE AND DURING THE JULY POLITICAL CRISIS OF 1918
UDC: 947.084.2 (470.41-25) «1918»
Authors: Sergey V. Starikov;
Introduction. After the Bolshevik coup in October 1917, the Great Russian Revolution entered the third stage (October 1917 – July 1918), when the left socialist parties – the Bolsheviks and the Left Socialists were in power. After the establishment of the new power, in the governing Soviet bloc, especially between the Bolsheviks and the Left Socialist Revolutionaries (SRs) more disagreements arose over the question of the foreign and domestic policy of the Soviet government. These contradictions led to the July political crisis in the Bolshevik – Left Socialist bloc. During the events of July, 1918, the Bolsheviks liquidated the party of the Left Socialist Revolutionaries. This article examines the situation on the ground, in particular in the Kozmodemyansk uyezd of the Kazan province. The purpose of the article is to consider the process of crowding out and liquidation of the Kozmodemyansk organization of the Left Socialist Revolutionaries. Materials and methods. The paper uses published archival materials and the results of historians’ research on the history of the Left Socialist Revolutionary Party, which allow us to present the political processes in the center and on the ground in the spring and summer of 1918. he article is based on the principles of historicism and objectivity, using methods of analysis, comparison, and description. Research results and discussions. Alternative proposals of the Left SRs on the food issue were rejected by the Bolsheviks, which led to an increase in confrontation between the two Soviet parties. Kozmodemyansk Left SRs tried to enlist the support of the Uyezd Peasant Congress, relying on the will of the peasants who opposed the extreme Bolshevik food dictatorship. The events of July 6, 1918 in Moscow accelerated the convocation of the Congress. The local Bolsheviks sought to disrupt the Congress, having previously dissolved the Uyezd Council of peasant deputies. Nevertheless, the Peasant Congress met in Kozmodemyansk on August 2, 1918, but was dispersed by an armed group of the Bolsheviks. Conclusion. Thus, the Bolshevik Party, in the conditions of the Civil war that had already begun, did not allow any alternative or opposition political forces to the policy of the Council of People's Commissars and, having declared the Left Socialist Revolutionary Party a counterrevolutionary anti-Soviet force, eliminated the Left SR opposition both in the center and on the ground.
THE NASHVILLE CONVENTION OF 1850 AS A STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT OF SOUTHERN SECESSIONISM ON THE EVE OF THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR
Authors: Andrei V. Taigildin;
The article is devoted to the little-studied in Russian historiography Nashville Convention, which was held in the state of Tennessee, USA after the Mexican-American war of 1846–1848. The Convention was called at the initiative of radical southern politicians, public figures, and slaveholders in response to David Wilmot's proviso. It was considered that the southern States should secede from the Union if the southerners' demands were not met and they were not allowed to transport slaves to the new territories. After two sessions, the delegates achieved almost nothing and accepted the terms of the Henry Clay compromise. However, the southern extremists, dissatisfied with the result, intensified their activities, and the 50s passed in the South under the sign of radicalization of southern public thought and the deterioration of relations with the North due to economic differences and the issue of slavery. The purpose of this article is to show the Nashville Convention as a stage in the development of southern secessionism, after which southern politics became more aggressive. The article presents the resolutions of the congresses, as well as the relations of southerners of different political views on the secession in general and on the Convention in particular. It is concluded that the last resolution of the Convention showed the Americans, on the one hand, the desire and ability of the southerners to compromise with the North, on the other – the lack of consensus in the southerners’ camp. This calmed the northerners for a while, but disturbed the southern radicals, who stepped up their activities. At the same time, it was emphasized that other events that took place a decade before the Civil War also affected the deepening of the conflict.
THE NATIONALIST PROJECTS IN THE ARAB WORLD IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE TWENTIETH CENTURY
UDC: 322.172.3 (07.00.03)
Authors: Timur R. Khairullin;
Introduction. The article attempts to analyze projects based on the ideas of Arab nationalism, socialism and Arab unity, which were promoted by Arab States to strengthen their own positions in the Arab region. The purpose of the article is to determine the effectiveness of nationalist ideas in integration projects in the Arab region in the second half of the twentieth century. Materials and methods. To reveal the essence of the issue under study, a method of comparative analysis was required, which allowed us to consider nationalist projects and identify common and specific features. The systematic method allowed us to analyze integration projects based on Arab nationalism and their formation, as well as the features of their application by the States of the Arab region. Results, discussion. By promoting integration projects based on Arab nationalism, Egypt has managed to achieve the status of a regional power. Iraq, Syria, Libya, Tunisia and Algeria have also significantly strengthened their regional positions. However, nationalist projects promoted by the States of the Arab world differed in their duration of existence, most of which were short-lived. One of the main reasons for the short-term projects was the internecine struggle and the lack of a unified development strategy among the members of the Union entity. Conclusion. The analysis revealed that integration projects based on the ideas of Arab nationalism were highly effective. Egypt during the reign of G. A. Nasser played a leading role in promoting integration projects. Among the most successful projects are the United ArabRepublic, the Federation of Arab Republics and the Arab MaghrebUnion. In addition, Arab nationalism became the ideological basis for uniting Arab States into military coalitions during the Arab-Israeli wars.
EUROPEAN VALUES: THE HISTORY OF FORMATION
Authors: Galina E. Shkalina;
Introduction. The article is devoted to the actual problem of modern European culture − the description of the history of the formation of its value norms. Work purpose: to identify the features of the formation of the axiological foundations of the European Union and their modern existence. Materials and methods. The article is based on historical and philosophical-cultural material (N. Danilevsky, O. Spengler, A. Toibi, P. Sorokin, M. Scheler, V. Diltey, M. Weber, etc.). Research methods: historical, axiological, typological. Research results and discussions. The article highlights the fact that the problem of values is important at all historical stages of the formation of European culture, from ancient to modern, from the point of view of social knowledge and social action. The significance of values is related to their characteristics such as longevity-short duration, extensiveness-intensity, and the degree of stability of society. The legacy of antiquity about the world as a harmonious whole, its fundamental categories of philosophy, ethics and aesthetics, and the main forms of the state system, Roman law, Christianity as the most important spiritual source, the greatness of the creative genius of the Renaissance, the rationalism of the age of Enlightenment, and the painful search for mechanisms for asserting democratic rights and freedoms of the subsequent stages of European history formed the common heritage of the European Union. As for Russia, part of whose territory is located on the European continent, its cultural and historical heritage was formed at the crossroads of civilizations of the North and South, West and East. At the same time, the Second Rome – Byzantium had a strong spiritual impact on it. As a result, Russia has historically been a country of the Way with bold goals, vast and extreme horizons. Conclusion. The author of the article comes to the conclusion that the history of the formation of European values is a centuries – old chronicle of the formation of such an axiological system, which serves as the basis of the identity of the inhabitants of modern Europe. Its foundation is determined by political, economic, legal, cultural, ethical, aesthetic, religious and other norms that have been filtered by the centuries-old history of European integration. The main problem facing Europe in the twenty-first century, as well as the world as a whole, is the search for a model of harmonious relationships between different civilizations by mutual correlation of their inherent value systems, which should enrich rather than disconnect each other.
ANALYTICAL AND LEGAL ANALYSIS OF THE PROCEDURE FOR INCLUDING SELF-EMPLOYED PERSONS IN THE SYSTEM OF COMPULSORY SOCIAL INSURANCE LEGAL RELATIONS
Authors: Lyudmila A. Galaeva; Alina F. Saifetdinova;
The author's attention was drawn to a detailed analysis of the legal regulation of the inclusion of individuals who independently provide themselves with work in the system of compulsory social insurance as an organizational and legal form of social security in the Russian Federation. The relevance of the topic under study is indicated, which is determined, on the one hand, by the need to form stable financial foundations of this system, and, on the other, by the guarantee of social protection of self-employed persons from realized social risks. The aim of the study is to clarify the legal mechanisms that mediate the procedure for inclusion of self-employed persons in compulsory social insurance relations. The goal has been achieved by comprehensive coverage of the following issues: 1) which group of self-employed persons and representatives of this group are in question; 2) what type of compulsory social insurance is it; 3) what is the procedure (imperative or voluntary - notification) of including self-employed in the legal relations system for various types of compulsory social insurance. Particular attention is paid to legal issues related to the simultaneous inclusion of certain categories of self-employed persons in mandatory pension and medical insurance as subjects of entrepreneurial and professional activity. In the context of the identified legal problems, the need for a clear resolution of the issue of the frequency of payment of a fixed amount of insurance premiums in connection with the implementation by the individual of the entrepreneurial and private professional activities at the legislative level is proved. Taking into account the different nature of income from labor activity in the form of self-employment, the authors conclude that the issue of the need to include people who independently provide themselves with work in compulsory social insurance relations is debatable.
ON THE EFFECT OF LIBERAL AND CONSERVATIVE LEGAL CONCEPTS ON THE INSTITUTION OF MILITARY PUNISHMENT DURING THE ESTABLISHMENT OF CAPITALISM IN RUSSIA
Authors: Oleg A. Egoshin;
Introduction. The reform period of the second half of the 19th century, also marked by the transition of the state to universal conscription, gave a new impetus to domestic ideological and legal trends. The purpose of the article is to scientifically comprehend, analyze and determine the degree of influence of the ideas of Russian jurists of the liberal and conservative sense of the second half of the 19th century on the institution of military punishment in Russia, to develop subsequently on this basis proposals aimed at strengthening the military law and order in modern Russia. Materials and methods. The general theoretical basis of the research was composed by the scientific works of A. P. Albov, P. V. Anisimov, S. S. Alekseev, N. A. Vlasenko, V. G. Grafsky, N. M. Zolotukhina, I. A. Isaev, S. V. Kodan, V. A. Letyaev, V. V. Lazarev, D. A. Lipinsky, O. E. Leist, A. V. Malko, L. S. Mamut, N. I. Matuzov, V. S. Nersesyants, A. S. Pigolkin, V. N. Khropanyuk, A. F. Cherdantsev and other Russian scientists. The methodological basis of the study was the dialectical materialistic method of scientific knowledge. Common research methods were analysis, synthesis, observation, and a systemic and functional approach. Along with them, special methods of cognition were also used: historical-legal, comparative-legal, concrete-sociological, formal-logical, systemic-structural, logical-legal, regulatory and others. Research results, discussions. The article substantiates the position that during the reforms of the second half of the 19th century, against the system of military punishments based on fear, threats of causing physical and moral suffering to a person, liberal thinkers put forward such ideas as the priority of prevention over punishment, human attitude to the person, who committed the crime, faith in his correction and moral rebirth. However, since the beginning of the 80s of the XIX century views on punishment of conservative and reactionary advocates who advocated the preservation and expansion of severe penalties prevailed. This was reflected in disciplinary practice and the sentences of military courts. Conclusion. In the article, the author identifies some trends in the development of domestic legal thought that affected the nature of military punishment during the period of the establishment of capitalism in Russia; similarities and differences in approaches to the military punishment system in diverse directions of the legal concepts of liberals and conservatives are shown, features of the development of ideas about punishment for military crimes are revealed.
CRIMINOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE APPLICATION OF LEGISLATION ON LIABILITY FOR ECONOMIC CRIMES
UDC: 343.3/.7; 342.9
Authors: Mikhail A. Smirnov; Polina S. Starygina;
Introduction. Ecоnоmic relatiоns are an impоrtant aspect оf state regulatiоn. Even a market ecоnоmy, designed for self-regulatiоn, hоwever, shоuld be gоverned by such legal rules оf behaviоr, which should be characterized by the certainty оf rights and obligations оf the parties involved. Purpose. Criminоlоgy, giving a theоretical explanatiоn оf the essence and patterns оf crime as a sоcial phenоmenоn, develоps measures tо prevent it. The scientific research in the field оf criminоlоgy is stimulated by the needs and requirements оf criminal practice. Materials and methods. There are clоse links between criminоlоgy and almоst all legal sciences оf the criminal law cycle, which is lоgical, since criminоlоgy has been distinguished frоm the science оf criminal law. Criminоlоgy studies crime, which in the brоad sense is a combination оf crimes, i.e. phenоmena defined by criminal law. Criminоlоgical data оn crime, as a sоcial phenоmenоn, allоw us tо measure the effectiveness оf the criminal law, especially its regulatоry mechanism. The results of the study, discussion. Mоdern criminоlоgists name mоre in-depth reasоns and cоnditiоns fоr the manifestatiоn оf qualificatiоn errоrs оf law enfоrcement when applying legislatiоn оn liability fоr ecоnоmic crimes. They name ecоnоmic and legal, as well as sоcial, pоlitical, оrganizatiоnal, sоciо-psychоlоgical, medical-sоcial, technical and оther reasоns fоr the grоwth оf ecоnоmic crime and the assоciated increase in ecоnоmic crimes and the cоrrespоnding increase in qualificatiоn errоrs. That is, criminоlоgists directly link the grоwth оf ecоnоmic crime in the Russian Federatiоn and the grоwth оf qualificatiоn errоrs in the qualificatiоn оf ecоnоmic crimes. Conclusion. The relatiоnship оf qualificatiоn errоrs in the applicatiоn оf criminal legislatiоn оn ecоnоmic crimes with changes in the ecоnоmy and law is undeniable. Criminоlоgists write abоut this clearly and in detail. Objective reasоns fоr the appearance оf qualificatiоn errоrs in the field оf respоnsibility fоr ecоnоmic crimes are: a) high blank character оf mоdern articles оn ecоnоmic crimes; b) incоnsistency оf sectоral legislatiоn with criminal legislatiоn in terms оf blankness; c) gaps in criminal legislatiоn that dоes nоt keep up with the activity and ingenuity оf mоdern ecоnоmic crime; d) technical and legal features оf the presentatiоn оf definitiоns оf ecоnоmic crimes. Subjective reasоns are: the neglect by law enfоrcers of both the nоrms оf nоn-criminal legislatiоn in the analysis оf ecоnоmic crimes and insufficient knоwledge and applicatiоn оf nоrms оf the criminal legislatiоn оn ecоnоmic crimes.
ON MEMORY AND OBLIVION: THE RETURN OF MARFA SABININA’S NAME TO RUSSIAN HISTORY
Authors: V. Rokina Galina ;
This essay on the recent publication of the memoirs of the founder of the Russian branch of the Red Cross, includes the history of the publication of diary entries of the daughter of the Russian Orthodox priest S. K. Sabinin, as well as a description of the new commented edition of the Notes of Marfa Stepanovna Sabinina. This publication, on the one hand, returns a forgotten name to Russian historical science and culture, and, on the other hand, opens up new opportunities for the study of Russian everyday life of cultural figures, clergy, statesmen, and the imperial court. The article publishes a brief outline of the main stages of M. Sabinina’s life, reflecting the scale of this personality and her unusual fate.