- VESTNIK 3(15) 2018
- Date publication on the site:
- 2018-11-21 09:44:20
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SCHOOL EDUCATION IN SECULAR SCHOOLS OF KOZMODEMYANSK DISTRICT IN 1916–1917 ACADEMIC YEAR
Authors: Irina V. Almeteva;
In Russia in the early twentieth century, many Zemstvo implemented a program of universal training. A school system was developed, money was allocated and new schools were opened each year. The aim of this work is to study the situation of school education in secular primary schools of Kozmodemyansk district in 1916–1917 academic year. This period is interesting due to the fact that in 1917 the Zemstvo passed the management of the school business not only on economic but also educational issues. City, County and provincial school councils were abolished; their functions were transferred to Zemstvo councils and city councils. Based on archival materials and using problem-chronological, comparative and statistical methods, it was possible to determine the General state of the educational process in secular schools of that period. By July 1, 1917 in Kozmodemyansky district consisted of 123 primary schools, consisting of 180 sets, this number was close to the number that is necessary for the population on the school network. In the Zemstvo schools and colleges of the Ministry of national education, boys and girls of different nationality and religion studied. Mainly Russian, Mari, Chuvash children were educated there. The teaching staff in primary schools of the Kozmodemyansk district was represented by law teachers, male and female teachers. Many of them received special pedagogical education and training. The First World War led to a reduction in the number of teachers, many of them were mobilized. To support the financial situation of the teaching staff from March 1, 1917 basic salary content was increased, allowances from the Treasury was also assigned. Subjects included the law of God, the Russian language, Slavic reading, Arithmetic; in some schools Church singing, needlework, gymnastics, gardening and gardening were conducted. At some primary schools people's readings of religious and moral, historical and fiction content were held. Thus, in 1916–1917 academic year in Kozmodemyansk County the network of primary secular educational institutions were actively developed and expanded. Much attention was paid to the material provision of school premises, the supply of textbooks and handouts, the proper organization of the educational process, the involvement in schools of trained teachers and candidates for teaching positions.
THE CONTROVERSY OF MILAN KUNDERA AND VACLAV HAVEL: 50-YEAR-OLD CASUS IN THE HISTORY OF IDEAS AND ITS INTERPRETATIONS
UDC: УДК 94(437.1)
Authors: Ella G. Zadorozhnyuk ;
The controversy about the “Czech share” of M. Kundera and V. Havel, unfolded in 1968-1969, received a wide response, and a number of its provisions have not lost their sharpness until today. In fact, it dealt with the preservation of the Czech nation’s identity and at the same time its sacrifice in the name of universal ideals, as it has already been in history, and when the Czech Republic was an independent state entity, and when it lost its independence. Kundera believed that the Czech nation can once again give a lesson of sacrifice in the struggle for it in the late 1960s, expressing through it the calling for the implementation of high universal ideals. For Havel, this sacrifice was not mandatory; in his opinion, it was enough to fight for the already established in the West forms of social and political life in order to preserve your identity.
DEVELOPMENT OF FORESTRY IN KUSHNINSKY WOODLAND AREA OF THE TSAREVOKOKSHAYSK DISTRICT OF THE KAZAN PROVINCE IN THE SECOND HALF OF XIX – THE BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURIES
UDC: УДК 908(470.343)
Authors: Alexey A. Ivanov; Anany G. Ivanov; Alexander A. Filonov ;
The article describes the state and development of forestry in Kushninsky woodland area of the Tsarevokokshaysk district of the Kazan province in the second half of XIX – the beginning of the XX century. The work is based on the principles of historicism, objectivity and consistency generally accepted in historical research. A number of special historical methods were used to write this article. The use of historical-genetic and historical-comparative methods allowed to explain the considered facts, to show cause-and-effect relationships, to reveal the essence of the studied processes and the phenomena. The application of historical-statistical method in the analysis of digital data and their average values gave an opportunity to track the dynamics of the defining indicators of forestry development in Kushninsky woodland area. The carried-out analysis of archival documents in conjunction with materials of the published sources and scientific literature allows us to suggest that forestry in Kushninsky woodland area of the Tsarevokokshaysk district developed quite successfully. In the early 60s of the XIX century it became an object of forest management during which the state of forest resources was examined, forms and volumes of their use were defined, scope and technology of forestry works were established. The profitability of forestry in Kushninsky woodland area tended to increase. The Volga cities – Kazan, Tsaritsyn and Astrakhan were of great importance for the sale of timber and timber products, harvested here. The share of local sales market was ralatively small. Among the serious problems in the field of forestry were the low efficiency of reforestation of the cutting areas and insufficient effectiveness of forest resources protection from illegal use.
BETTING ON A MATCH, OR MARRYING UP FOR THE REVOLUTION (INTERTEXTUAL ANALYSIS)
UDC: УДК 94(47)«189»
Authors: Vladimir I. Keidan;
The paper compares two texts concerning the same person: M. N. Semenov (1873–1952), a journalist and publisher of the first Russian Marxist magazine “The New Word”, which had just been shut down by tsarist authorities, and later an employee of the symbolist publishing house “Scorpio” and the magazine “Vesy.” The first text is a collection of personal letters Lyubov Fyodorvna Dostoevskaya (1869–1926), the youngest daughter of Dostoevsky, wrote to her cousin Andrey Andreevich Dostoevsky between 1897 and 1899, published here for the first time. The letters describe the daily life of a lonely, bored lady who considers herself a representative of the liberal intelligentsia of the turn of the century. The second text is an autobiographical account by Semenov of a funny episode: a somewhat unsuccessful attempt of a friend to marry him to a rich woman in order to transfer half of her finances to the revolutionary cause. The account does not reveal the names of the friend or the erstwhile bride-to-be. L. Dostoevskaya feigns passion for cards and, together with her cousin, invites several players – M. Semenov among them – to play. Their secret goal is to marry Semenov to Maria Nikolaevna Rizenkampf (1868–?), the daughter of a wealthy general. Anna Grigoryevna Dostoevskaya, F. Dostoevky's widow, bets against the success of their ploy, wagering a bottle of champagne. A year and a half later, when Semenov and Rizenkampf got engaged, the cousins got to pop the cork. According to Semenov’s account, his wife left him soon after the wedding, so the financial component of the cousins’ plan never materialized. L. Dostoevskaya's letters mention the names of liberal writers from her social circle. Intertextual parallels are drawn between the first and second parts of the publication. The commentary includes extensive quotations from archival documents showing that Semenov and his associates were under secret surveillance by agents of the tsarist secret police, and from Semenov's own censored correspondence. Prepared and commented on the letters - Keidan Vladimir Isidorovich – an independent researcher. The author is a graduate of the Faculty of Philology of Lomonosov Moscow State University. From 1990 to 2014 – Associate Professor at the Institute of Slavic Studies at the University of Carlo Bo (Urbino, Italy). Currently lives in Rome (Italy). Scientific interests of the scientist: culture of the Silver Age, literature, philosophy. The main publications of V. Keidan: Searching for towns. Chronicle of the private life of Russian religious philosophers in letters and diaries (1900–1922) / comp., comments, prolusion. Languages of Russian culture. Moskow: 1997, 752 p. M. N. Semenov. Bacchus and sirens. Publication, comments, prolusion. Moskow: New literary review, 2008, 652 p. Searching for towns. Anthology. Book One. Chronicle of Russian literary, religious-philosophical and sociopolitical movements in participants’ private letters and diaries. 1829–1900. 2nd edition revised and enlarged. Composition, comments. M .: Modest Kolerov, 2018, 628 p. Russians in Italy. “Dictionary of Russian emigration in Italy” (1900–1940). Internet edition: http://www.russinitalia.it 62 biographical articles. 2003–2007.
COULD MENORCA BECOME A RUSSIAN ISLAND? (FROM THE HISTORY OF RUSSIAN-BRITISH RELATIONS OF THE LAST THIRD OF THE XVIII CENTURY)
Authors: Tatyana L. Labutina ;
The article deals with the strategy and tactics of British diplomacy in the issue of prolongation of the Treaty on the Defensive Alliance of Great Britain and Russia in the reign of Catherine II. This problem is studied for the first time in Russian historiography on the basis of the analysis of diplomatic correspondence of British ambassadors in Russia with the Head of the Foreign Affairs Agency. The war of independence of the North American colonies and related wars with France, Spain and Holland put Great Britain in a critical position. British diplomacy was forced to put a lot of effort to attract Russia in these conflicts on its side, using for this purpose the Spanish island of Menorca as a bribe for the Empress.
PROPHETIC DREAMS IN DANTE'S “DIVINE COMEDY”
Authors: Yuliya S. Obidina ;
The article discusses the prophetic dreams of Dante, described by him in the second part of the Divine Comedy – Purgatorio. Particular emphasis is placed on the relationship of Dante's original ideas about prophecy and the ideas of his predecessors and contemporaries. The aim of the article is to consider dreams as definite continuums, within the framework of which the soul moves from earthly passions to God. It is shown that, exploring many conflicting concepts, Dante does not oppose them to each other, but unites them into a single whole. It is noted that through the description of the time of each dream, the choice of words for the description, Dante combines three dreams into a single continuum. It is emphasized that dreams are not only related to each other, they are also associated with many beliefs about prophecy, which were shared by both ancient and medieval writers. Dante must rebuild his own priorities in accordance with God’s and undergo reordering, which unites his soul and body, so that they move together. It is concluded that Purgatory provides an opportunity for restructuring, which ultimately will be necessary for a successful entry to heaven, and dreams signify Dante's progress in the reordering process. Herewith, Dante must change the order of the relationship between his body and soul in order to bring these two opposing concepts to a single whole. Dreams, in this case, correspond to the point reached by Dante in this process.
AN OUTSTANDING VYATKA TEACHER-EDUCATOR N. N. BLINOV
Authors: Vladimir B. Pomelov;
The article provides a summary of the educational, scientific and practical pedagogical activity of an outstanding native of Vyatka province Nicholay Nikolaevich Blinov (1839–1917). N. N. Blinov is described comprehensively: as a teacher-practitioner, author of a great number of books and other publications on the history of the Vyatka region and its peoples (Mari, Udmurts, Tatars), provincial statistics, popularizer of scientific knowledge, a fighter for the opening of schools and overcoming illiteracy among the rural population. The period of work of N. N. Blinov in the village Bakhta near the city of Vyatka is shown in details. He was the author of the first alphabet-book for Udmurts “Lydzon”, which led to the creation of literature for this people. The fame to N. N. Blinov was brought by a book for children's reading “Learning is Light”, published in Vyatka and Moscow. His fundamental works: “Public education in the Vyatka province in the past 10 years, 1864–1874” (Vyatka, 1875, 459 p.) and “Population movement in Orlov district of the Vyatka province” (Vyatka, 1876, 214 p.) serve up to nowadays as a major source for modern historians. In the article considerable attention is paid to the description of his relationships with prominent teachers of his time, such as F. F. Pavlenkov and N. F. Bunakov, who highly valued N. N. Blinov’s methodical quest and civic position and supported him in his scientific search. Thanks to the high level of N. N. Blinov’s works he was elected a full member (academician) of the Russian Imperial Geographic Society, bypassing the stage of a corresponding member. His works were published in the editions of this authoritative scientific society. At the same time, N. N. Blinov was repeatedly subjected to repression by the imperial authorities. In recent times the name of N. N. Blinov is becoming more famous thanks to a number of publications about him.
FORMATION OF THE BORDERS OF THE MARI AUTONOMOUS REGION IN THE 1920S: HISTORIOGRAPHY AND SOURCES
Authors: Olga E. Shamova;
In 2020, the centenary of the creation of the Mari autonomous region will be celebrated. Modern historical science has accumulated quite extensive material on this period of Soviet history. At the same time, the problem of establishing the borders of the Mari autonomous region, in particular, the question of how and by what principle the boundaries of the new administrative entity were established, how the local population reacted to the new borders, whether it caused inter-territorial and international conflicts or disagreements, remains littlestudied. Until 1920, the territory of the Mari region was part of the six provinces (Kazan, Vyatka, Kostroma, Nizhny Novgorod, Ufa and Perm). In places of compact residence of the titular population – the Mari, were Chuvash, Tatar, Udmurt and Russian villages. The establishment of the outer boundaries of the Mari region took place with regard to the ethnic composition of the population, of economic orientation of the region, border rounding, natural barriers. This article attempts to show the current state of problem historiography and the source base available to researchers.
DIFFICULTIES OF HUMAN RIGHTS REALIZATION IN THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD: CAUSES AND EFFECTS
Authors: Evgenii V. Suslov;
The problem of human rights realization, considered in this article, is actualized by the need to find out the reasons why the attitude to human rights and their observance has not become dominant, why the power structures in many countries of the world, publicly representing the adherents of human rights, in fact, oppose its implementation in real life, and what are the difficulties of monitoring the observance of human rights? The researcher drew the following conclusions: The attitude to human rights in the modern world has become contradictory, because governments do not believe in stability-supporting role of human rights activities. In the meantime citizens don't believe in real possibility to secure themselves from the state. The legal positivism dominates in the legal environment and governments have a monopoly on creation of rules of law and claim the exclusivity of their position in the legal field. The legal positivism is often accompanied by an imitation of human rights, which is most typical for states with authoritarian political systems. An authoritarian government imitates human rights to save its face and status of a formally democratic state. Human rights are not recognized by all states of the world: they have become universal or almost universal for the countries of the Western world with their guarantees of rights and freedoms, an individualistic outlook, whereas in the countries of Islamic traditions and culture human rights were directly banned, which is a consequence of the manifestation of the basic values of Eastern civilization. Under the influence of EU-scepticism, which prevailed after the Eurozone crisis in 2013–2014, the constitutional modernization was replaced by a systematic re-traditionalization, resulting in an adjustment of the concept of human rights, which was expressed in the conflict of theoretical ideas, norms and political practices.
ADMINISTRATIVE DEMOLITION OF UNAUTHORIZED CONSTRUCTION: THE CONTRADICTIONS OF THEORY AND PRACTICE
Authors: Gleb Yu. Shabalin;
Introduction. The article discusses various aspects of the contradictions between legislative regulation, theoretical substantiation and judicial practice in the use of administrative demolition of unauthorized construction. The purpose of the research is to create a holistic scientific understanding of the legal regulation and application of civil law in the practice of resolving disputes related to the administrative demolition of unauthorized construction. Materials and methods. The research is based on the study of the legislation of the Russian Federation and the analysis of the legal positions of various judicial authorities. Research methods are general scientific and private scientific. Of the special methods, legal-technical, systemic and other methods of scientific knowledge were applied. Results. The author raises the question of the exclusive competence of the court, as a source of recognition of the construction as unauthorized. The legal nature of protecting the rights of a public owner, such as an administrative demolition of an unauthorized construction, is examined in detail. The author indicates the coincidence of private and public interests of the land owner. The situation in which the owner missed the term of claim limitation was considered. The article highlighted the criteria for the admissibility of administrative demolition, studied the basic theoretical approaches to understanding the application of the institution under consideration within the authority of the local government and their relationship with the constitutional principles of justice. A teleological interpretation of the rules of law governing the administrative demolition of unauthorized buildings was made. A description of ways to protect the rights of property's developers who have complained the actions of a public entity was given. Conclusion. The main contradictions between legislative regulation, theoretical justification and judicial practice of application of norms of administrative demolition of unauthorized constructions were allocated and analyzed, conclusions about the prospects of existence of a legal institution of administrative demolition of unauthorized construction in the Russian legislation were drawn.
SPECIFIC FACT IN PROOF OF CRIMINAL CASES ON THE APPLICATION OF COMPULSORY MEASURES OF MEDICAL CHARACTER
Authors: Svetlana A. Yakovleva; Elena V. Medvedkova;
The criminal procedure law provides for special criminal proceedings on the application of compulsory measures of medical character in respect of: 1) a person who has committed a socially dangerous act prohibited by criminal law in a state of insanity; 2) a person who has committed a crime, after which a mental disorder occurred, making it impossible to impose a punishment; 3) a person who committed a crime, after which a mental disorder occurred, making it impossible to execute a punishment (article 433 of the Code of Criminal Procedure). Thus, there are three forms of special proceedings on the application of compulsory measures of medical character. For this category of persons, the fact in proof determined by the legislator is too narrow and does not take into account the peculiarities of the procedural status during criminal proceedings. The correct qualification of a socially dangerous act is impossible without establishing the objective and subjective characteristics of the composition of the act prohibited by criminal law, corresponding to the circumstances mentioned by the legislator in paragraphs 1 and 2 of Art. 73 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of RF. Inclusion into the fact in proof in the proceedings for the application of compulsory medical measures of circumstances that establish the causal complex of committing a socially dangerous act prohibited by criminal law will allow to solve the goals and objectives of the appointment and application of compulsory medical measures. It seems that the fact in proof for special criminal proceedings on the application of compulsory medical measures should be characterized by the establishment of: 1) the circumstances specified in paragraph 1-5 of part 2 of art. 434 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 2) the circumstances specified in paragraphs 1–8 of part 1 of art. 73 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 3) the circumstances contributing to the commission of the crime referred to in part 2 of art. 73 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 4) the circumstances relevant to the investigation and resolution of the criminal case. In this case, in respect of persons, specified in part 1 of Art. 433 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, the fact in proof should be built depending on the procedural status of the person in respect of whom the question of the application of compulsory medical measures is decided, and on the stage of criminal proceedings.
“VOLGA BOUNDARY” IN THE SLOVAK REPUBLIC
Authors: О. С. Крылова;
В словацком городе Прешов в Музее русинской культуры состоялась церемония открытия план- шетной выставки «Волжский рубеж в культурной памяти», подготовленной при участии Россий- ского военно-исторического общества и поддержке МИД России. Русины – общий этноним, насе- ление Закарпатья, Восточной Словакии, Сербской Воеводины, юго-восточной Польши, северо- западной Румынии, признано национальным меньшинством ООН и ЕС, европейскими странами, кроме Украины. По религиозной принадлежности – православные и греко-католики.