VESTNIK 1 (25) 2021
- VESTNIK 1 (25) 2021
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- 2021-05-11 11:34:11
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THE PEASANTRY ON THE VERGE OF CHANGE: FEBRUARY 1917 – JUNE 1918 (BASED ON MATERIALS OF THE MARI REGION)
Authors: Aleksey A. Ivanov; Tatyana P. Fedyaeva;
Introduction. The period from February 1917 to June 1918 was a turning point in the fate of the Russian peas-antry. Landlords’ land ownership disappeared, the Decree on Land and the basic law on the socialization of land were adopted, but the peasant never became a full-fledged owner of the land and the products of his own labor. The redistribution of land and the struggle for grain that began with the fall of the autocracy continued with renewed vigor after the October Revolution under Soviet rule. A large-scale peasant movement unfolded throughout the country. This article attempts to analyze the peasant movement in the Mari region in the period under study. Purpose. The purpose of this article is to study the peasant movement in the Mari region in the period from February 1917 to June 1918. Materials and methods. In this article the author used the regulatory legal documents of the Provisional Government, the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR, published and archival documents on the history of the Mari region of the period 1917–1918, scientific articles and monographs devoted to the problem under consideration. The research is based on historical-genetic, historical-comparative and historical-typological methods, which made it possible to reconstruct the events in the Mari village during the period of changes and to assess them. Results, discussion. During the research the authors identified the main trends in the development of the peas-ant movement in the village of the Mari region in the period from February 1917 to June 1918. Conclusion. The research showed that the peasant movement did not depend on the current government. The movement fol-lowed its own path, during which the peasantry defended its rights.
RETROSPECTIVES OF HISTORICAL PARALLELS IN THE EVOLUTION OF THE CONCEPT OF NATIONAL SECURITY OF RUSSIA
Authors: Oleg. A. Lipatov;
Introduction. The coups d'etat at the beginning and at the end of the XX century in the Russian state in both cases formed a new historical reality. In the context of the destruction of the old and the formation of a new so-ciety, approaches to ensuring state security were formed. The article examines the historical conditions for the formation of approaches to understanding the conceptual and normative components of the content of ensur-ing national security during periods of coups d’etat at the beginning of the 20th century and in the 90s of the 20th century. Purpose: to compare current situations, political conflicts, driving forces of transformation, con-sequences and their impact on the formation of the conceptual foundations of national security. Materials and methods. The paper uses regulations related to security issues during the revolutionary transformations of the early 19th century and early 90-ies of the 20th century. The article uses general scientific methods (description) and special historical methods (historical-comparative). Research results and discussions. Changes in the coun-try’s economic and political structure as a result of political cataclysms entail the formation of a new under-standing of security objects. At the same time, the transition to a new system of state security is based on the scientific and human resources potential of the previous era. Conclusion. Thus, the national security compo-nents are significantly influenced by the traditions of understanding security, which are carried out by specialists who train the personnel of the relevant executive authorities and the specifics of the state economy.
P.A. STOLYPIN AND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF HIS AGRARIAN POLICY IN THE VILLAGE OF THE SIMBIRSK TRANS-VOLGA REGION OF THE SAMARA PROVINCE (1906–1916)
Authors: Rashit A. Mukhamedov; Dmitriy A. Subbotin ;
Introduction. The article is devoted to the implementation of the agrarian reform of P.A. Stolypin on the territo-ry of the Simbirsk Trans-Volga region (which until 1920 was part of the Samara province). The urgency of the problem is due to the fact that the development of a system of reforms in the agricultural sector, in the context of the growing degree of tension in international relations with European states and the United States, requires an appeal to the historical experience of P.A. Stolypin's reforms, as a result of which an effective result was achieved in the shortest possible time. Purpose: to carry out a comprehensive analysis of the implementation of the agrarian reform of P.A. Stolypin on the territory of the Simbirsk Trans-Volga region. Materials and methods. The research was carried out on the basis of archival materials taken from the depositories of the Central State Archives of the Samara Region and periodicals. Both general scientific and special research methods: compara-tive – historical, concrete – historical and statistical were used in the work. Results, discussion. The article ana-lyzes in detail the course and results of the Stolypin agrarian reform for the period 1906–1916, and also reveals the characteristic features of this process. It has been proved that the result of agrarian transformations was the acquisition of the status of a personal landowner by the peasant. Conclusion. It is noted that the reform had a positive impact on the development of production and led to the emergence of effective business executives-capitalists in the peasant environment. At the same time, it should be borne in mind that among the peasant en-vironment, social inequality increased; wealthy peasants could massively build houses and purchase household goods, while poor peasants who could not adapt to new realities joined the ranks of the proletarians.
THE MYTH OF ZAGREUS IN THE HISTORICAL NARRATIVE OF ANCIENT CIVILIZATION
Authors: Yulia S Obidina;
Introduction. The article deals with the myth of Zagreus in the historical narrative of the ancient civilization. The relevance of the article is associated with ongoing discussions for over 150 years about the character and role of Orpheus and the teachings associated with his name. The purpose of the article is to show how the Orphic doctrine and the myth of Zagreus fit into the historical narrative of ancient civilization based on the analysis of classical sources and the most significant studies of the myth of Orpheus. The hypothesis is that the myth of Zagreus, as the central myth of Orphism, must be considered not from a soteriological, but from a civilizational and political perspective, since it was this myth that substantiated the supreme power of Zeus and led to the ide-ological substantiation of the polis structure. This is the novelty of the research. In support of the working hy-pothesis, the hermeneutic methodology, the structural anthropology of Claude Lévi-Strauss, and his concept of the mytheme as a generic unit of the narrative structure are used to consider the myth of Zagreus. Materials and methods. Historical-genetic and historical-comparative methods were used as research methods. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the ideas and hypotheses of Orphism researchers about the place and role of the myth of Orpheus and the teachings associated with it in the system of religious ideas of ancient civilization and the doctrine of salvation. The author proposes to postpone the alleged ritual context of the myth and read it in its narrative context as one of the episodes of the ancient tradition. It is emphasized that the myth of Zagreus may be a vital link between the Orphic text and Orphic ritual. It is noted that Orphism texts were aimed at con-veying the experience of the "mystery" through poetic syntax and morphology, the act of reading, memorizing, understanding, and guaranteeing knowledge, truth, “revelationsˮ about death. It is substantiated that the very act of writing Orphic texts is the main difference between “Orphism” and the early Greek mysteries and Diony-sian practices. Conclusion. It is concluded that the religious trend, which we know today as "Orphism", in a his-torical context, presupposes a written reform of the Dionysian Mysteries, which shows the transition to the his-torical ethos of classical culture.
THE MAIN PROBLEMS OF REGIONAL SECURITY IN THE MIDDLE EAST
Authors: Igor V. Ryzhov; Maria Yu. Borodina; Elena M. Savicheva;
Introduction. The Middle East is rightly called one of the most “explosive” regions of the world, which is associ-ated with numerous armed conflicts, terrorism and religious extremism. In recent years, the Middle East region has become the focus of various international problems that affect not only individual states of the Middle East, but also threaten the entire regional security system of the region. In this regard, it is worth noting the high relevance of the topic under consideration. The purpose of the article is to analyze the main problems affecting the re-gional security system of the Middle East region. Materials and methods. For a detailed analysis of regional se-curity in the Middle East, the authors used a systematic approach, the application of which is due to the fact that the formation of the Middle East security system was influenced by a number of socio-economic, political, reli-gious and ethnic factors. Empirical and theoretical methods, such as synthesis and analysis, were used for the analysis. One of the methods used by the authors is content analysis, the task of which is to study the content of the text. This method was actively used in the analysis of various works of foreign and Russian researchers on the system of regional security in the Middle East. Research results, discussion. The analysis of the main prob-lems of regional security in the Middle East region reveals the key reasons that hinder the creation of a sustain-able security system in the Middle East. Conclusion. Numerous conflicts, religious confrontations, terrorism, the lack of consolidation of interests, views and principles of most regional actors ‒ all this does not allow the countries of the Middle East to create any strong integration association that can survive in an unstable world order and contribute to the settlement of long-term conflicts.
“ATTEMPT ON SOVIET POWER”: KAZAN LEFT SRS ON THE DECREE OF THE CENTRAL EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE AND THE COUNCIL OF PEOPLE'S COMMISSARS OF JUNE 11, 1918
UDC: 947.084.2 (470.41-25) «1918»
Authors: Sergey V. Starikov;
Introduction. In the spring of 1918, in connection with the aggravation of the socio-economic crisis in the Soviet Republic and the beginning of intervention on the sea borders, the Bolsheviks moved away from the gradual transformation and switched to an emergency policy. It manifested itself primarily in the establishment of the food dictatorship in the country in May – June 1918. The reliance was made on forceful methods of obtaining grain, the use of such administrative levers as the dictatorship of the People's Commissariat of Food, sending de-tachments of workers to the countryside to confiscate grain. One of the measures to get grain and deepen the revolution in the countryside was the decree of the Central Executive Committee and the Council of People's Commissars of June 11, 1918 on the organization of the rural poor, which went down in history as a decree on the committees of the poor (Kombeds). The Left Socialist-Revolutionaries (SRs), as a Soviet party, regarded the emergency measures of the Bolsheviks as unacceptable and sharply opposed the food dictatorship in the Bolshevik interpretation, especially against the split of the peasantry and the organization of Kombeds in the countryside. This article examines the position of the Kazan Left SRs in relation to the decree of June 11, 1918, and focuses on the characterization of the views of the Left SRs on the alignment of class forces in the countryside. Purpose of the article: to consider the reasons for the negative attitude of the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries to the Bolshevik policy in the countryside in the context of the creation of the Kombeds. Materials and methods. The work uses both archival and published materials, the results of research by histori-ans, which allow us to present the political processes in the center and on the ground in the spring and summer of 1918. The article is written on the basis of the principles of historicism and objectivity using the methods of analysis, comparison, and description. Research results, discussion. The Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, unlike the Bolsheviks, continued to regard the uyezd, volost, and village Councils of Peasant Deputies as legitimate Soviet authorities, with the help of which the food question should be solved, and the creation of the Kombeds was assessed as undermining Soviet power in the countryside, as dividing the peasantry, and introducing civil war into its environment. At the same time, it was noted that on the ground, the Bolsheviks were not always in solidarity with the actions of their leadership and often supported the Left SRs in this matter. Conclusion. Thus, the Bolshevik party placed a bet on the establishment of a proletarian dictatorship in the countryside, regardless of the interests of the peasant masses, whose interests the Left SRs sought to express and protect, to preserve the lower peasant Soviets as organs of power, which must be entrusted with extraordinary measures to combat the kulaks and solve the grain crisis.
ZEMSTVO MEDICINE IN FIGHTING EPIDEMICS IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE XIX – EARLY XX CENTURIES (BASED ON MATERIALS OF THE VYATKA PROVINCE)
UDC: 94(470.342) ″18/19″
Authors: Anna M. Subbotina;
Introduction. The article is devoted to the study of the zemstvo anti-epidemic work. The ability to understand the social factors and consequences of epidemics in the past and in the present makes the study relevant. Pur-pose of the study. The article aims to investigate the activities of the zemstvo and its medical staff for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases among the population of the Vyatka province in the 1860‒1910s. Materials and methods. Published materials and documents of the funds of the zemstvo admin-istrations of the Central State Archive of the Kirov region and the Central State Archive of the Udmurt Republic are the basis of the article. The author uses a historical and systematic approach to identify the relationship be-tween the development of health care in the region, zemstvo efforts and the local population culture. Research results, discussion. The study reveals the results of the zemstvo's activities to ensure the availability of medical care, create a sanitary organization, and conduct preventive and anti-epidemic measures. The author refers to ethnographic descriptions, reports of zemstvo doctors and administrations and shows the attitude of the popula-tion to medical and anti-epidemic measures, the features of its economic and everyday culture that contributed to the spread of infectious diseases. Conclusion. The author concludes that despite the certain success achieved by the zemstvo in the prevention and control of epidemics, the zemstvo community was dissatisfied with its re-sults. The reason for this was the inability to cover the entire population with vaccinations and other necessary measures, both due to the lack of zemstvo resources, including human resources, and the lack of awareness among the popula-tion of the Vyatka province of the need to comply with anti-epidemic measures.
FEATURES OF MIGRATION IN THE US SOUTHERN STATES IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE XIX CENTURY AS A FACTOR IN THE FORMATION OF SOUTHERN NATIONAL IDENTITY
Authors: Andrey V. Taigildin ;
In the first half of the nineteenth century, the population of the United States grew rapidly. The growth was due to emigrants from Europe. In the United States itself, the population also did not stand still and with each dec-ade moved the American frontier further to the West. The Americans easily took off and moved to other states and territories. However, in the South of the United States, migration had its own peculiarity: southerners pre-ferred to choose southern slave states for moving. At the same time, immigrants from Europe and migrants from the northern states did not often choose the South to start a new life. Most often they settled in New Eng-land or went to the West. This feature of migration in America influenced the formation of the southern type of Americans no less than slavery and the patriarchal way of life. Southerners were constantly in the same for-mation, and even when they moved to another state, they did not leave the world of slave-owners- planters. Mi-gration influenced not only the formation of two types of Americans, but also contributed to the creation of a new nation – the southerners. This nation was not destined to arise, which gives rise to heated historical discus-sions about the applicability of the concept of "nation" to Americans, in general, and to southerners in particu-lar. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to determine the place of migration in the formation of the southern national identity. In conclusion, the reasons for internal migration in the South are revealed and it is concluded that the southerners who moved only to other southern states gradually created a unique cultural, economic and political community that had all the prerequisites for the formation of a nation.
THE EXPERIENCE OF STUDYING THE FIRST CARLIST WAR BASED ON MATERIALS FROM THE VATICAN APOSTOLIC ARCHIVE
Authors: Andrei A. Tereshchuk ;
The First Carlist War is a major intra-state conflict that took place in Spain in 1833-1840. Much of the research dedicated to the history of the First Carlist War (1833–1840) is based on materials from the Spanish archives (archives of the Spain Ministry of Defense, Archive of the Royal Academy of History, National Historical Ar-chive). Work in the archives of other countries could open up new approaches to the study of this conflict. Pur-pose: the purpose of the article is to show the experience of studying the confrontation between the Carlists and Christinos (“liberals”) according to the documents stored in the Vatican Apostolic Archives (Archivio Apostolico Vaticano), located in the Vatican City State, and to outline further prospects for searching in this archive. Mate-rials and methods. The present article is based on the results of research work in the Vatican Apostolic Archives, in the archives of the State Secretariat, in the “Foreign Policy” fund. In the course of the study, the documents related to the activities of the Apostolic Nunciature in Spain in 1832-1835 were examined. A significant part of these materials is the correspondence of the nuncios F. Tiberi (remained in Spain until May 1834) and L. Amata (arrived in Madrid in September 1833) with the Secretary of State of the Holy See T. Burnetti. Research results, discussion. The first Carlist War began in October 1833. Although the main attention in the correspondence of both representatives of the Holy See was paid to questions of international politics, they regularly informed T. Bernetti about the course of hostilities, gave assessments to some military and political figures, reported rumors circulating in Madrid about the plans of Maria-Cristina and her government. Conclusion. The materials from the Vatican Apostolic Archive could be used not only in research in the field of relations between Spain and the Holy See, but also allow us to take a fresh look at the course of events in Spain and at the general Euro-pean context of the war of 1833–1840.
REFLECTION OF THE STRUGGLE FOR A NEW CONCEPT OF THE HISTORY OF THE USSR IN THE PROGRAMS OF HISTORY COURSES FOR UNIVERSITIES (1930S)
Authors: Nikita V. Tikhomirov ;
Introduction. The article is devoted to the study of university programs of training courses on the history of the USSR for the period of the 1930s in the context of the formation of the Soviet mono-concept of Russian history and the accompanying criticism of the theoretical legacy of M.N. Pokrovsky. Purpose: to analyze the complex of work programs on the history of the USSR for the specified period; to trace significant changes in their struc-ture and content; to identify trends that have determined the corresponding changes; to establish the relation-ship between the identified changes and the synchronous process of the development of historical knowledge in the USSR. Materials and methods. In preparing the article, documents from the archives of the Russian Acad-emy of Sciences were used. The basis of the source base was formed by the programs of the course of the histo-ry of the USSR, developed at the Moscow State Pedagogical Institute from 1930 to 1938 for different special-ties. Research results, discussion. The study found that in the period from the beginning to the end of the 1930s, the structure and content of the course have undergone significant changes associated with a number of factors: 1) the general development of scientific thought; 2) the political and ideological initiatives of the Soviet leader-ship; 3) academic activities aimed at a radical restructuring of the system of history education. The study of the complex of programs in history made it possible to see how the rhetoric, formulations and approaches to the re-flection of the new Marxist concept of Russian history in the corresponding educational courses changed. Conclusion. Involvement of university work programs on the history of the USSR makes it possible to improve understanding of the peculiarities of the functioning of higher education in this period, as well as expand modern scientific ideas about the development of Marxist historiography and the formation of the Soviet mono-concept of national history.
PROCEDURAL ECONOMY IN THE SYSTEM OF PRINCIPLES OF CIVIL PROCEDURE
Authors: Aleksey I. Artizanov;
. Introduction. The principles of civil procedural law, being a reference point for the entire procedural branch of law as a whole, help to coordinate the course of all civil proceedings. The principle of procedural economy is not directly enshrined in the civil procedural law, however, Article 2 of the Civil Procedure Code of the Russian Fed-eration, calls one of the main tasks of civil proceedings – the correct and timely consideration and resolution of civil cases by the court, which is the basis of the idea of procedural economy. The article is devoted to the analysis of the positions of various scientists to the idea of consolidating the principle of procedural economy in civil law, as having a regulatory effect on procedural relations, and a brief analysis of the correlation of procedural economy with other principles of civil proceedings is carried out. Purpose: to form a holistic scientific understanding of procedural economy as a principle and its place in the system of all princi-ples of civil procedure. Materials and methods. The research is based on the study of the civil procedural legisla-tion of the Russian Federation, as well as the analysis of scientific literature, consisting of articles, monographs and materials of judicial practice. Research methods are general scientific and private scientific methods, as well as formal logical methods (analysis, synthesis). Results, discussion. Despite the presence of the problem of con-solidating the principle of procedural economy in the main provisions of civil legislation, it was concluded that such a step is possible, taking into account the unconditional priority of the quality of justice over its speed. Conclusion. Based on the analysis carried out, the conclusion is formulated that procedural economy is one of the fundamental principles of civil proceedings and its legal consolidation is appropriate. The correlation of the principle of procedural economy with other principles of civil procedure is also analyzed. The conclusions are both theoretical and practical in nature, since they significantly expand the legal framework for the implementa-tion of the principle under consideration.